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Article

AFOROS: A Low-Cost Wi-Fi-Based Monitoring System for Estimating Occupancy of Public Spaces

ETSI de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Avda. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Academic Editor: Eduard Garcia-Villegas
Sensors 2021, 21(11), 3863; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113863
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEEE 802.11 and Wireless Sensors Network)
Estimating the number of people present in a given venue in real-time is extremely useful from a security, management, and resource optimization perspective. This article presents the architecture of a system based on the use of Wi-Fi sensor devices that allows estimating, almost in real-time, the number of people attending an event that is taking place in a venue. The estimate is based on the analysis of the “probe request” messages periodically transmitted by smartphones to determine the existence of Wi-Fi access points in the vicinity. The method considers the MAC address randomization mechanisms introduced in recent years in smartphones, which prevents the estimation of the number of devices by simply counting different MAC addresses. To solve this difficulty, our Wi-Fi sensors analyze other fields present in the header of the IEEE 802.11 frames, the information elements, to extract a unique fingerprint from each smartphone. The designed system was tested in a set of real scenarios, obtaining an estimate of attendance at different public events with an accuracy close to 95%. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wi-Fi tracking; automatic people counting; occupancy estimation; passive tracking; Wi-Fi sensor; Wi-Fi probe Wi-Fi tracking; automatic people counting; occupancy estimation; passive tracking; Wi-Fi sensor; Wi-Fi probe
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vega-Barbas, M.; Álvarez-Campana, M.; Rivera, D.; Sanz, M.; Berrocal, J. AFOROS: A Low-Cost Wi-Fi-Based Monitoring System for Estimating Occupancy of Public Spaces. Sensors 2021, 21, 3863. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113863

AMA Style

Vega-Barbas M, Álvarez-Campana M, Rivera D, Sanz M, Berrocal J. AFOROS: A Low-Cost Wi-Fi-Based Monitoring System for Estimating Occupancy of Public Spaces. Sensors. 2021; 21(11):3863. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113863

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vega-Barbas, Mario, Manuel Álvarez-Campana, Diego Rivera, Mario Sanz, and Julio Berrocal. 2021. "AFOROS: A Low-Cost Wi-Fi-Based Monitoring System for Estimating Occupancy of Public Spaces" Sensors 21, no. 11: 3863. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113863

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