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Open AccessArticle

On-line Smoothing and Error Modelling for Integration of GNSS and Visual Odometry

1
Department of Geomatics and Land-administration, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi 122000, Vietnam
2
Department of Geomatics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5259; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235259
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Sensor Systems for Positioning and Navigation)
Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) are commonly used for navigation and mapping applications. However, in GNSS-hostile environments, where the GNSS signal is noisy or blocked, the navigation information provided by a GNSS is inaccurate or unavailable. To overcome these issues, this study proposed a real-time visual odometry (VO)/GNSS integrated navigation system. An on-line smoothing method based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother was proposed. VO error modelling was also proposed to estimate the VO error and compensate the incoming measurements. Field tests were performed in various GNSS-hostile environments, including under a tree canopy and an urban area. An analysis of the test results indicates that with the EKF used for data fusion, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the three-dimensional position is about 80 times lower than that of the VO-only solution. The on-line smoothing and error modelling made the results more accurate, allowing seamless on-line navigation information. The efficiency of the proposed methods in terms of cost and accuracy compared to the conventional inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS integrated system was demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; INS; integration; navigation; visual odometry; on-line smoothing; error modelling GNSS; INS; integration; navigation; visual odometry; on-line smoothing; error modelling
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Duong, T.T.; Chiang, K.-W.; Le, D.T. On-line Smoothing and Error Modelling for Integration of GNSS and Visual Odometry. Sensors 2019, 19, 5259.

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