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Using Inertial Measurement Units and Electromyography to Quantify Movement during Action Research Arm Test Execution

1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
The University Rehabilitation Institute, Republic of Slovenia, Linhartova 51, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092767
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

In patients after stroke, ability of the upper limb is commonly assessed with standardised clinical tests that provide a complete upper limb assessment. This paper presents quantification of upper limb movement during the execution of Action research arm test (ARAT) using a wearable system of inertial measurement units (IMU) for kinematic quantification and electromyography (EMG) sensors for muscle activity analysis. The test was executed with each arm by a group of healthy subjects and a group of patients after stroke allocated into subgroups based on their clinical scores. Tasks were segmented into movement and manipulation phases. Each movement phase was quantified with a set of five parameters: movement time, movement smoothness, hand trajectory similarity, trunk stability, and muscle activity for grasping. Parameters vary between subject groups, between tasks, and between task phases. Statistically significant differences were observed between patient groups that obtained different clinical scores, between healthy subjects and patients, and between the unaffected and the affected arm unless the affected arm shows normal performance. Movement quantification enables differentiation between different subject groups within movement phases as well as for the complete task. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient shows strong correlations between patient’s ARAT scores and movement time as well as movement smoothness. Weak to moderate correlations were observed for parameters that describe hand trajectory similarity and trunk stability. Muscle activity correlates well with grasping activity and the level of grasping force in all groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; upper-limb movement; quantification; ARAT; inertial measurement unit; electromyography stroke; upper-limb movement; quantification; ARAT; inertial measurement unit; electromyography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Repnik, E.; Puh, U.; Goljar, N.; Munih, M.; Mihelj, M. Using Inertial Measurement Units and Electromyography to Quantify Movement during Action Research Arm Test Execution. Sensors 2018, 18, 2767.

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