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Sensors, Volume 14, Issue 12 (December 2014), Pages 22159-24542

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Open AccessArticle Robust Huber-Based Iterated Divided Difference Filtering with Application to Cooperative Localization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24523-24542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224523
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1742 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which
[...] Read more.
A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber’s M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24502-24522; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224502
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2416 | PDF Full-text (1583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The
[...] Read more.
A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
Open AccessArticle An Architecture for Measuring Joint Angles Using a Long Period Fiber Grating-Based Sensor
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24483-24501; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224483
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 6 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1952 | PDF Full-text (5027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The implementation of signal filters in a real-time form requires a tradeoff between computation resources and the system performance. Therefore, taking advantage of low lag response and the reduced consumption of resources, in this article, the Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithm is used
[...] Read more.
The implementation of signal filters in a real-time form requires a tradeoff between computation resources and the system performance. Therefore, taking advantage of low lag response and the reduced consumption of resources, in this article, the Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithm is used to filter a signal acquired from a fiber-optics-based sensor. In particular, a Long-Period Fiber Grating (LPFG) sensor is used to measure the bending movement of a finger. After that, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) technique allows us to classify the corresponding finger position along the motion range. For these measures to help in the development of an autonomous robotic hand, the proposed technique can be straightforwardly implemented on real time platforms such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Digital Signal Processors (DSP). Different angle measurements of the finger’s motion are carried out by the prototype and a detailed analysis of the system performance is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle An Electrochemical Microsensor Based on a AuNPs-Modified Microband Array Electrode for Phosphate Determination in Fresh Water Samples
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24472-24482; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224472
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2163 | PDF Full-text (2800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of a gold microband array electrode (MAE) for the determination of phosphate in fresh water samples. The working principle of this MAE is based on the reduction of a molybdophosphate complex using the linear sweep
[...] Read more.
This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of a gold microband array electrode (MAE) for the determination of phosphate in fresh water samples. The working principle of this MAE is based on the reduction of a molybdophosphate complex using the linear sweep voltammetric (LSV) method. The calibration of this microsensor was performed with standard phosphate solutions prepared with KH2PO4 and pH adjusted to 1.0. The microsensor consists of a platinum counter electrode, a gold MAE as working electrode, and an Ag/AgCl electrode as reference electrode. The microelectrode chips were fabricated by the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. To improve the sensitivity, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited on the working electrode. With a linear range from 0.02 to 0.50 mg P/L, the sensitivity of the unmodified microsensor is 2.40 µA per (mg P/L) (R2 = 0.99) and that of the AuNPs-modified microsensor is 7.66 µA per (mg P/L) (R2 = 0.99). The experimental results showed that AuNPs-modified microelectrode had better sensitivity and a larger current response than the unmodified microelectrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of a PMN-PT Single Crystal-Based Transcranial Doppler Transducer and the Power Regulation of Its Detection System
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24462-24471; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224462
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2334 | PDF Full-text (1826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) were chosen to
[...] Read more.
Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) were chosen to be the piezoelectric transducer material due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high electromechanical coupling coefficients and low dielectric loss. The pulse-echo response of the transducer was measured using the conventional pulse-echo method in a water bath at room temperature. The −6 dB bandwidth of the transducer is 68.4% and the sensitivity is −17.4 dB. In order to get a good match between transducer and detection system, different transmission powers have been regulated by changing the impedance of the transmitting electric circuit. In the middle cerebral artery (MCA) measurement photograph results, as the transmission power is increasing, the detection results become clearer and clearer. A comparison at the same transmission power for different transducers shows that the detection photograph obtained by the crystal transducer was clearer than that obtained with a commercial transducer, which should make it easier for doctors to find the cerebral arteries. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Benefits of Soft Sensor and Multi-Rate Control for the Implementation of Wireless Networked Control Systems
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24441-24461; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224441
Received: 1 October 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1988 | PDF Full-text (1258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in wireless networking technology and the proliferation of industrial wireless sensors have led to an increasing interest in using wireless networks for closed loop control. The main advantages of Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCSs) are the reconfigurability, easy commissioning and the
[...] Read more.
Recent advances in wireless networking technology and the proliferation of industrial wireless sensors have led to an increasing interest in using wireless networks for closed loop control. The main advantages of Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCSs) are the reconfigurability, easy commissioning and the possibility of installation in places where cabling is impossible. Despite these advantages, there are two main problems which must be considered for practical implementations of WNCSs. One problem is the sampling period constraint of industrial wireless sensors. This problem is related to the energy cost of the wireless transmission, since the power supply is limited, which precludes the use of these sensors in several closed-loop controls. The other technological concern in WNCS is the energy efficiency of the devices. As the sensors are powered by batteries, the lowest possible consumption is required to extend battery lifetime. As a result, there is a compromise between the sensor sampling period, the sensor battery lifetime and the required control performance for the WNCS. This paper develops a model-based soft sensor to overcome these problems and enable practical implementations of WNCSs. The goal of the soft sensor is generating virtual data allowing an actuation on the process faster than the maximum sampling period available for the wireless sensor. Experimental results have shown the soft sensor is a solution to the sampling period constraint problem of wireless sensors in control applications, enabling the application of industrial wireless sensors in WNCSs. Additionally, our results demonstrated the soft sensor potential for implementing energy efficient WNCS through the battery saving of industrial wireless sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Sensor Fusion of Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared (TIR) and Panchromatic (PAN) Images
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24425-24440; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224425
Received: 23 August 2014 / Revised: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2642 | PDF Full-text (12828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data fusion is defined as the combination of data from multiple sensors such that the resulting information is better than would be possible when the sensors are used individually. The multi-sensor fusion of panchromatic (PAN) and thermal infrared (TIR) images is a good
[...] Read more.
Data fusion is defined as the combination of data from multiple sensors such that the resulting information is better than would be possible when the sensors are used individually. The multi-sensor fusion of panchromatic (PAN) and thermal infrared (TIR) images is a good example of this data fusion. While a PAN image has higher spatial resolution, a TIR one has lower spatial resolution. In this study, we have proposed an efficient method to fuse Landsat 8 PAN and TIR images using an optimal scaling factor in order to control the trade-off between the spatial details and the thermal information. We have compared the fused images created from different scaling factors and then tested the performance of the proposed method at urban and rural test areas. The test results show that the proposed method merges the spatial resolution of PAN image and the temperature information of TIR image efficiently. The proposed method may be applied to detect lava flows of volcanic activity, radioactive exposure of nuclear power plants, and surface temperature change with respect to land-use change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Smart City Application: A Fully Controlled Street Lighting Isle Based on Raspberry-Pi Card, a ZigBee Sensor Network and WiMAX
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24408-24424; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224408
Received: 27 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 4590 | PDF Full-text (1454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts
[...] Read more.
A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Smart Cities)
Open AccessArticle Moving Target Tracking through Distributed Clustering in Directional Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24381-24407; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224381
Received: 2 October 2014 / Revised: 30 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2001 | PDF Full-text (483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing
[...] Read more.
The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target’s location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Improved One-Way Hash Chain and Revocation Polynomial-Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Schemes in Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24358-24380; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224358
Received: 12 October 2014 / Revised: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and
[...] Read more.
Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Inertial Sensor-Based Smoother for Gait Analysis
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24338-24357; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224338
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2258 | PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An off-line smoother algorithm is proposed to estimate foot motion using an inertial sensor unit (three-axis gyroscopes and accelerometers) attached to a shoe. The smoother gives more accurate foot motion estimation than filter-based algorithms by using all of the sensor data instead of
[...] Read more.
An off-line smoother algorithm is proposed to estimate foot motion using an inertial sensor unit (three-axis gyroscopes and accelerometers) attached to a shoe. The smoother gives more accurate foot motion estimation than filter-based algorithms by using all of the sensor data instead of using the current sensor data. The algorithm consists of two parts. In the first part, a Kalman filter is used to obtain initial foot motion estimation. In the second part, the error in the initial estimation is compensated using a smoother, where the problem is formulated in the quadratic optimization problem. An efficient solution of the quadratic optimization problem is given using the sparse structure. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can estimate foot motion more accurately than a filter-based algorithm with reasonable computation time. In particular, there is significant improvement in the foot motion estimation when the foot is moving off the floor: the z-axis position error squared sum (total time: 3.47 s) when the foot is in the air is 0.0807 m2 (Kalman filter) and 0.0020 m2 (the proposed smoother). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors and Systems)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24329-24337; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224329
Received: 5 November 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2486 | PDF Full-text (1392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm.
[...] Read more.
The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s) to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Chemical, Biological and Industrial Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effective Low-Power Wearable Wireless Surface EMG Sensor Design Based on Analog-Compressed Sensing
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24305-24328; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224305
Received: 11 October 2014 / Revised: 29 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2780 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is a non-invasive measurement process that does not involve tools and instruments to break the skin or physically enter the body to investigate and evaluate the muscular activities produced by skeletal muscles. The main drawbacks of existing sEMG systems are:
[...] Read more.
Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is a non-invasive measurement process that does not involve tools and instruments to break the skin or physically enter the body to investigate and evaluate the muscular activities produced by skeletal muscles. The main drawbacks of existing sEMG systems are: (1) they are not able to provide real-time monitoring; (2) they suffer from long processing time and low speed; (3) they are not effective for wireless healthcare systems because they consume huge power. In this work, we present an analog-based Compressed Sensing (CS) architecture, which consists of three novel algorithms for design and implementation of wearable wireless sEMG bio-sensor. At the transmitter side, two new algorithms are presented in order to apply the analog-CS theory before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). At the receiver side, a robust reconstruction algorithm based on a combination of ℓ1-ℓ1-optimization and Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL) framework is presented to reconstruct the original bio-signals from the compressed bio-signals. The proposed architecture allows reducing the sampling rate to 25% of Nyquist Rate (NR). In addition, the proposed architecture reduces the power consumption to 40%, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD) to 24%, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) to 2%, and the computation time from 22 s to 9.01 s, which provide good background for establishing wearable wireless healthcare systems. The proposed architecture achieves robust performance in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for the reconstruction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Network for Pervasive Medical Care)
Open AccessArticle HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24278-24304; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224278
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2246 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that usemobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that usemobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG) scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC) and the mobile relay (MR). MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS)-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS)-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to theMR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP)-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperformsmTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Fiber Bragg Grating Spectrum Degradation on the Performance of Sensor Interrogation Algorithms
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24258-24277; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224258
Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2349 | PDF Full-text (1318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The working principle of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is mostly based on the tracking of the Bragg wavelength shift. To accomplish this task, different algorithms have been proposed, from conventional maximum and centroid detection algorithms to more recently-developed correlation-based techniques. Several studies
[...] Read more.
The working principle of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is mostly based on the tracking of the Bragg wavelength shift. To accomplish this task, different algorithms have been proposed, from conventional maximum and centroid detection algorithms to more recently-developed correlation-based techniques. Several studies regarding the performance of these algorithms have been conducted, but they did not take into account spectral distortions, which appear in many practical applications. This paper addresses this issue and analyzes the performance of four different wavelength tracking algorithms (maximum detection, centroid detection, cross-correlation and fast phase-correlation) when applied to distorted FBG spectra used for measuring dynamic loads. Both simulations and experiments are used for the analyses. The dynamic behavior of distorted FBG spectra is simulated using the transfer-matrix approach, and the amount of distortion of the spectra is quantified using dedicated distortion indices. The algorithms are compared in terms of achievable precision and accuracy. To corroborate the simulation results, experiments were conducted using three FBG sensors glued on a steel plate and subjected to a combination of transverse force and vibration loads. The analysis of the results showed that the fast phase-correlation algorithm guarantees the best combination of versatility, precision and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A High-Q Resonant Pressure Microsensor with Through-Glass Electrical Interconnections Based on Wafer-Level MEMS Vacuum Packaging
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24244-24257; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224244
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2635 | PDF Full-text (2273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging. An approach to maintaining high-vacuum conditions by integrating the MEMS fabrication process with getter material preparation is presented in this paper. In this device, the
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging. An approach to maintaining high-vacuum conditions by integrating the MEMS fabrication process with getter material preparation is presented in this paper. In this device, the pressure under measurement causes a deflection of a pressure-sensitive silicon square diaphragm, which is further translated to stress build up in “H” type doubly-clamped micro resonant beams, leading to a resonance frequency shift. The device geometries were optimized using FEM simulation and a 4-inch SOI wafer was used for device fabrication, which required only three photolithographic steps. In the device fabrication, a non-evaporable metal thin film as the getter material was sputtered on a Pyrex 7740 glass wafer, which was then anodically bonded to the patterned SOI wafer for vacuum packaging. Through-glass via holes predefined in the glass wafer functioned as the electrical interconnections between the patterned SOI wafer and the surrounding electrical components. Experimental results recorded that the Q-factor of the resonant beam was beyond 22,000, with a differential sensitivity of 89.86 Hz/kPa, a device resolution of 10 Pa and a nonlinearity of 0.02% F.S with the pressure varying from 50 kPa to 100 kPa. In addition, the temperature drift coefficient was less than −0.01% F.S/°C in the range of −40 °C to 70 °C, the long-term stability error was quantified as 0.01% F.S over a 5-month period and the accuracy of the microsensor was better than 0.01% F.S. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Nanofibers Deposited by a Novel Focused Electrospinning Method. Application to the Detection of TATP Precursors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24231-24243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224231
Received: 21 October 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2176 | PDF Full-text (2156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed
[...] Read more.
A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP) in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Reduced Terrestrial LiDAR Point Density on High-Resolution Grain Crop Surface Models in Precision Agriculture
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24212-24230; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224212
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3402 | PDF Full-text (3478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes
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3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
Open AccessArticle A Malicious Pattern Detection Engine for Embedded Security Systems in the Internet of Things
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24188-24211; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224188
Received: 21 September 2014 / Revised: 23 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2860 | PDF Full-text (1268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), a large number of physical objects in daily life have been aggressively connected to the Internet. As the number of objects connected to networks increases, the security systems face a critical challenge due to
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With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), a large number of physical objects in daily life have been aggressively connected to the Internet. As the number of objects connected to networks increases, the security systems face a critical challenge due to the global connectivity and accessibility of the IoT. However, it is difficult to adapt traditional security systems to the objects in the IoT, because of their limited computing power and memory size. In light of this, we present a lightweight security system that uses a novel malicious pattern-matching engine. We limit the memory usage of the proposed system in order to make it work on resource-constrained devices. To mitigate performance degradation due to limitations of computation power and memory, we propose two novel techniques, auxiliary shifting and early decision. Through both techniques, we can efficiently reduce the number of matching operations on resource-constrained systems. Experiments and performance analyses show that our proposed system achieves a maximum speedup of 2.14 with an IoT object and provides scalable performance for a large number of patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24174-24187; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224174
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2363 | PDF Full-text (1299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The sensorimotor system (SMS) plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety.
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The sensorimotor system (SMS) plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP) in a target circle (TITC). The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe) were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years) showed good to excellent test–retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS) was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS). The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years) showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle Recognizing Objects in 3D Point Clouds with Multi-Scale Local Features
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24156-24173; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224156
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2214 | PDF Full-text (2082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recognizing 3D objects from point clouds in the presence of significant clutter and occlusion is a highly challenging task. In this paper, we present a coarse-to-fine 3D object recognition algorithm. During the phase of offline training, each model is represented with a set
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Recognizing 3D objects from point clouds in the presence of significant clutter and occlusion is a highly challenging task. In this paper, we present a coarse-to-fine 3D object recognition algorithm. During the phase of offline training, each model is represented with a set of multi-scale local surface features. During the phase of online recognition, a set of keypoints are first detected from each scene. The local surfaces around these keypoints are further encoded with multi-scale feature descriptors. These scene features are then matched against all model features to generate recognition hypotheses, which include model hypotheses and pose hypotheses. Finally, these hypotheses are verified to produce recognition results. The proposed algorithm was tested on two standard datasets, with rigorous comparisons to the state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that our algorithm was fully automatic and highly effective. It was also very robust to occlusion and clutter. It achieved the best recognition performance on all of these datasets, showing its superiority compared to existing algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Pyridine-Containing Cu2+-Selective Probe Based on Naphthalimide Derivative
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24146-24155; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224146
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1724 | PDF Full-text (2056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new fluorescent probe P derived from naphthalimide bearing a pyridine group has been synthesized and characterized. The proposed probe P shows high selectivity and sensitivity to Cu2+ in aqueous media. Under optimized conditions, the linear response of P (2 μM) toward
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A new fluorescent probe P derived from naphthalimide bearing a pyridine group has been synthesized and characterized. The proposed probe P shows high selectivity and sensitivity to Cu2+ in aqueous media. Under optimized conditions, the linear response of P (2 μM) toward Cu2+ was 0.05–0.9 μM in ethanol-water solution (3:2, v:v, 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.4), and the detection limit was 0.03 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle An Analog Gamma Correction Scheme for High Dynamic Range CMOS Logarithmic Image Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24132-24145; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224132
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2096 | PDF Full-text (1794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel analog gamma correction scheme with a logarithmic image sensor dedicated to minimize the quantization noise of the high dynamic applications is presented. The proposed implementation exploits a non-linear voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to perform the gamma
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In this paper, a novel analog gamma correction scheme with a logarithmic image sensor dedicated to minimize the quantization noise of the high dynamic applications is presented. The proposed implementation exploits a non-linear voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to perform the gamma correction during the analog-to-digital conversion. As a result, the quantization noise does not increase while the same high dynamic range of logarithmic image sensor is preserved. Moreover, by combining the gamma correction with the analog-to-digital conversion, the silicon area and overall power consumption can be greatly reduced. The proposed gamma correction scheme is validated by the reported simulation results and the experimental results measured for our designed test structure, which is fabricated with 0.35 μm standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Multi-Resolution Satellite Sensors for Assessing Water Quality and Bottom Depth of Lake Garda
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24116-24131; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224116
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3012 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images
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In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Novel High Sensitivity Sensor for Remote Field Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Based on Orthogonal Magnetic Field
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24098-24115; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224098
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2962 | PDF Full-text (3182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors’ disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is
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Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors’ disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted. Full article
Open AccessReview A Survey of Middleware for Sensor and Network Virtualization
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24046-24097; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224046
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2194 | PDF Full-text (1299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is leading to a new paradigm of Internet of Everything (IoE). WSNs have a wide range of applications but are usually deployed in a particular application. However, the future of WSNs lies in the aggregation and allocation of resources,
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is leading to a new paradigm of Internet of Everything (IoE). WSNs have a wide range of applications but are usually deployed in a particular application. However, the future of WSNs lies in the aggregation and allocation of resources, serving diverse applications. WSN virtualization by the middleware is an emerging concept that enables aggregation of multiple independent heterogeneous devices, networks, radios and software platforms; and enhancing application development. WSN virtualization, middleware can further be categorized into sensor virtualization and network virtualization. Middleware for WSN virtualization poses several challenges like efficient decoupling of networks, devices and software. In this paper efforts have been put forward to bring an overview of the previous and current middleware designs for WSN virtualization, the design goals, software architectures, abstracted services, testbeds and programming techniques. Furthermore, the paper also presents the proposed model, challenges and future opportunities for further research in the middleware designs for WSN virtualization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Self-Referenced Optical Intensity Sensor Network Using POFBGs for Biomedical Applications
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24029-24045; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224029
Received: 24 October 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3994 | PDF Full-text (4422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work bridges the gap between the remote interrogation of multiple optical sensors and the advantages of using inherently biocompatible low-cost polymer optical fiber (POF)-based photonic sensing. A novel hybrid sensor network combining both silica fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and polymer FBGs (POFBG)
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This work bridges the gap between the remote interrogation of multiple optical sensors and the advantages of using inherently biocompatible low-cost polymer optical fiber (POF)-based photonic sensing. A novel hybrid sensor network combining both silica fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and polymer FBGs (POFBG) is analyzed. The topology is compatible with WDM networks so multiple remote sensors can be addressed providing high scalability. A central monitoring unit with virtual data processing is implemented, which could be remotely located up to units of km away. The feasibility of the proposed solution for potential medical environments and biomedical applications is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Radio Characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks for Judo Monitoring Applications
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24004-24028; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141224004
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2236 | PDF Full-text (3277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the characterization of the radio channel for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for judo applications is presented. The environments where judo activity is held are usually complex indoor scenarios in terms of radiopropagation due to their morphology, the presence
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In this work, the characterization of the radio channel for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for judo applications is presented. The environments where judo activity is held are usually complex indoor scenarios in terms of radiopropagation due to their morphology, the presence of humans and the electromagnetic interference generated by personal portable devices, wireless microphones and other wireless systems used by the media. For the assessment of the impact that the topology and the morphology of these environments have on electromagnetic propagation, an in-house developed 3D ray-launching software has been used in this study. Time domain results as well as estimations of received power level have been obtained for the complete volume of a training venue of a local judo club’s facilities with a contest area with the dimensions specified by the International Judo Federation (IJF) for international competitions. The obtained simulation results have been compared with measurements, which have been carried out deploying ZigBee-compliant XBee Pro modules at presented scenario, using approved Judogis (jacket, trousers and belt). The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an in-house human body computational model. Such analysis has allowed the design and development of an in house application devoted to monitor the practice of judo, in order to aid referee activities, training routines and to enhance spectator experience. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Multi-Sensor RSS Spatial Sensing-Based Robust Stochastic Optimization Algorithm for Enhanced Wireless Tethering
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23970-24003; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141223970
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2298 | PDF Full-text (4358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reliability of wireless communication in a network of mobile wireless robot nodes depends on the received radio signal strength (RSS). When the robot nodes are deployed in hostile environments with ionizing radiations (such as in some scientific facilities), there is a possibility
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The reliability of wireless communication in a network of mobile wireless robot nodes depends on the received radio signal strength (RSS). When the robot nodes are deployed in hostile environments with ionizing radiations (such as in some scientific facilities), there is a possibility that some electronic components may fail randomly (due to radiation effects), which causes problems in wireless connectivity. The objective of this paper is to maximize robot mission capabilities by maximizing the wireless network capacity and to reduce the risk of communication failure. Thus, in this paper, we consider a multi-node wireless tethering structure called the “server-relay-client” framework that uses (multiple) relay nodes in between a server and a client node. We propose a robust stochastic optimization (RSO) algorithm using a multi-sensor-based RSS sampling method at the relay nodes to efficiently improve and balance the RSS between the source and client nodes to improve the network capacity and to provide redundant networking abilities. We use pre-processing techniques, such as exponential moving averaging and spatial averaging filters on the RSS data for smoothing. We apply a receiver spatial diversity concept and employ a position controller on the relay node using a stochastic gradient ascent method for self-positioning the relay node to achieve the RSS balancing task. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated by extensive simulations and field experiments in CERN facilities. For the field trials, we used a youBot mobile robot platform as the relay node, and two stand-alone Raspberry Pi computers as the client and server nodes. The algorithm has been proven to be robust to noise in the radio signals and to work effectively even under non-line-of-sight conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Design and Experiment of FBG-Based Icing Monitoring on Overhead Transmission Lines with an Improvement Trial for Windy Weather
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23954-23969; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141223954
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1922 | PDF Full-text (8315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A scheme for monitoring icing on overhead transmission lines with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors is designed and evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The influences of temperature and wind are considered. The results of field experiments using simulated ice loading on windless
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A scheme for monitoring icing on overhead transmission lines with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors is designed and evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The influences of temperature and wind are considered. The results of field experiments using simulated ice loading on windless days indicate that the scheme is capable of monitoring the icing thickness within 0–30 mm with an accuracy of ±1 mm, a load cell error of 0.0308v, a repeatability error of 0.3328v and a hysteresis error is 0.026%. To improve the measurement during windy weather, a correction factor is added to the effective gravity acceleration, and the absolute FBG strain is replaced by its statistical average. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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