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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24278-24304;

HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in "A Novel Hierarchical Cooperative Data Gathering Architecture Using Multiple Mobile Elements. In Proceedings of the 2014 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), Shanghai, China, 8–11 July 2014; pp. 522–527".
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that usemobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG) scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC) and the mobile relay (MR). MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS)-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS)-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to theMR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP)-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperformsmTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile data gathering; multiple mobile elements; cooperative data gathering; optimal trajectories mobile data gathering; multiple mobile elements; cooperative data gathering; optimal trajectories

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Van Le, D.; Oh, H.; Yoon, S. HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements. Sensors 2014, 14, 24278-24304.

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