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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 9 (September 2013) , Pages 11167-12743

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Open AccessArticle Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12698-12743; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912698
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3190 | PDF Full-text (3084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the [...] Read more.
The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Static Hyperspectral Fluorescence Imaging of Viscous Materials Based on a Linear Variable Filter Spectrometer
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12687-12697; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912687
Received: 25 June 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2895 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a low-cost hyperspectral measurement setup in a new application based on fluorescence detection in the visible (Vis) wavelength range. The aim of the setup is to take hyperspectral fluorescence images of viscous materials. Based on these images, fluorescent and non-fluorescent [...] Read more.
This paper presents a low-cost hyperspectral measurement setup in a new application based on fluorescence detection in the visible (Vis) wavelength range. The aim of the setup is to take hyperspectral fluorescence images of viscous materials. Based on these images, fluorescent and non-fluorescent impurities in the viscous materials can be detected. For the illumination of the measurement object, a narrow-band high-power light-emitting diode (LED) with a center wavelength of 370 nm was used. The low-cost acquisition unit for the imaging consists of a linear variable filter (LVF) and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 2D sensor array. The translucent wavelength range of the LVF is from 400 nm to 700 nm. For the confirmation of the concept, static measurements of fluorescent viscous materials with a non-fluorescent impurity have been performed and analyzed. With the presented setup, measurement surfaces in the micrometer range can be provided. The measureable minimum particle size of the impurities is in the nanometer range. The recording rate for the measurements depends on the exposure time of the used CMOS 2D sensor array and has been found to be in the microsecond range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
Open AccessArticle A Relevance Vector Machine-Based Approach with Application to Oil Sand Pump Prognostics
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12663-12686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912663
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2856 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oil sand pumps are widely used in the mining industry for the delivery of mixtures of abrasive solids and liquids. Because they operate under highly adverse conditions, these pumps usually experience significant wear. Consequently, equipment owners are quite often forced to invest substantially [...] Read more.
Oil sand pumps are widely used in the mining industry for the delivery of mixtures of abrasive solids and liquids. Because they operate under highly adverse conditions, these pumps usually experience significant wear. Consequently, equipment owners are quite often forced to invest substantially in system maintenance to avoid unscheduled downtime. In this study, an approach combining relevance vector machines (RVMs) with a sum of two exponential functions was developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of field pump impellers. To handle field vibration data, a novel feature extracting process was proposed to arrive at a feature varying with the development of damage in the pump impellers. A case study involving two field datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed method. Compared with standalone exponential fitting, the proposed RVM-based model was much better able to predict the remaining useful life of pump impellers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A 0.0016 mm2 0.64 nJ Leakage-Based CMOS Temperature Sensor
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12648-12662; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912648
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2992 | PDF Full-text (1813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a CMOS temperature sensor based on the thermal dependencies of the leakage currents targeting the 65 nm node. To compensate for the effect of process fluctuations, the proposed sensor realizes the ratio of two measures of the time it takes [...] Read more.
This paper presents a CMOS temperature sensor based on the thermal dependencies of the leakage currents targeting the 65 nm node. To compensate for the effect of process fluctuations, the proposed sensor realizes the ratio of two measures of the time it takes a capacitor to discharge through a transistor in the subthreshold regime. Furthermore, a novel charging mechanism for the capacitor is proposed to further increase the robustness against fabrication variability. The sensor, including digitization and interfacing, occupies 0.0016 mm2 and has an energy consumption of 47.7–633 pJ per sample. The resolution of the sensor is 0.28 °C, and the 3σ inaccuracy over the range 40–110 °C is 1.17 °C. Full article
Open AccessArticle Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12632-12647; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912632
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4565 | PDF Full-text (2117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used [...] Read more.
The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Upscale-Crop and Partial Manipulation in Surveillance Video Based on Sensor Pattern Noise
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12605-12631; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912605
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2971 | PDF Full-text (3040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In many court cases, surveillance videos are used as significant court evidence. As these surveillance videos can easily be forged, it may cause serious social issues, such as convicting an innocent person. Nevertheless, there is little research being done on forgery of surveillance [...] Read more.
In many court cases, surveillance videos are used as significant court evidence. As these surveillance videos can easily be forged, it may cause serious social issues, such as convicting an innocent person. Nevertheless, there is little research being done on forgery of surveillance videos. This paper proposes a forensic technique to detect forgeries of surveillance video based on sensor pattern noise (SPN). We exploit the scaling invariance of the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH) correlation filter to reliably unveil traces of upscaling in videos. By excluding the high-frequency components of the investigated video and adaptively choosing the size of the local search window, the proposed method effectively localizes partially manipulated regions. Empirical evidence from a large database of test videos, including RGB (Red, Green, Blue)/infrared video, dynamic-/static-scene video and compressed video, indicates the superior performance of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Ontology Alignment Architecture for Semantic Sensor Web Integration
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12581-12604; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912581
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 24 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3183 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental [...] Read more.
Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity’s names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12564-12580; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912564
Received: 11 June 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3455 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when [...] Read more.
The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model’s transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop’s performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Centrifugal Compressor Blade Crack Classification Using the Squared Envelope Spectrum
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12548-12563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912548
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3067 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Centrifugal compressors are a key piece of equipment for modern production. Among the components of the centrifugal compressor, the impeller is a pivotal part as it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Blade crack condition monitoring and classification has been [...] Read more.
Centrifugal compressors are a key piece of equipment for modern production. Among the components of the centrifugal compressor, the impeller is a pivotal part as it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Blade crack condition monitoring and classification has been broadly investigated in the industrial and academic area. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP) sensor arranged in close vicinity to the crack area and the corresponding casing vibration signals are used to monitor blade crack information. As these signals cannot directly demonstrate the blade crack, the method employed in this research is based on the extraction of weak signal characteristics that are induced by blade cracking. A method for blade crack classification based on the signals monitored by using a squared envelope spectrum (SES) is presented. Experimental investigations on blade crack classification are carried out to verify the effectiveness of this method. The results show that it is an effective tool for blade crack classification in centrifugal compressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Model-Based Spike Detection of Epileptic EEG Data
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12536-12547; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912536
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3935 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate automatic spike detection is highly beneficial to clinical assessment of epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In this paper, a new two-stage approach is proposed for epileptic spike detection. First, the k-point nonlinear energy operator (k-NEO) is adopted to detect all possible spike candidates, [...] Read more.
Accurate automatic spike detection is highly beneficial to clinical assessment of epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In this paper, a new two-stage approach is proposed for epileptic spike detection. First, the k-point nonlinear energy operator (k-NEO) is adopted to detect all possible spike candidates, then a newly proposed spike model with slow wave features is applied to these candidates for spike classification. Experimental results show that the proposed system, using the AdaBoost classifier, outperforms the conventional method in both two- and three-class EEG pattern classification problems. The proposed system not only achieves better accuracy for spike detection, but also provides new ability to differentiate between spikes and spikes with slow waves. Though spikes with slow waves occur frequently in epileptic EEGs, they are not used in conventional spike detection. Identifying spikes with slow waves allows the proposed system to have better capability for assisting clinical neurologists in routine EEG examinations and epileptic diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Assessment of Birefringent Skin Structures in Scattered Light Confocal Imaging Using Radially Polarized Light
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12527-12535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912527
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Viewed by 3247 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polarization characteristics of birefringent tissues could be only partially obtained using linearly polarized light in polarization sensitive optical imaging. Here we analyze the change in polarization of backscattered light from birefringent structures versus the orientations of the incident polarizations using linearly, circularly [...] Read more.
The polarization characteristics of birefringent tissues could be only partially obtained using linearly polarized light in polarization sensitive optical imaging. Here we analyze the change in polarization of backscattered light from birefringent structures versus the orientations of the incident polarizations using linearly, circularly and radially polarized light in a cross-polarized confocal microscope. A spatially variable retardation plate composed of eight sectors of λ/2 wave plates was used to transform linearly polarized light into a radially polarized light. Based on the experimental data obtained from ex-vivo measurements on human scalp hairs and in-vivo measurements on hair and skin, we exemplify that the underestimation of the birefringence content resulting from the orientation related effects associated with the use of linearly polarized light for imaging tissues containing wavy birefringent structures could be minimized by using radially polarized light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors for Industrial, Environmental and Health Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Stem Cell Enrichment with Selectin Receptors: Mimicking the pH Environment of Trauma
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12516-12526; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912516
Received: 16 July 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2953 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The isolation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is critical for transplantation therapy and HSPC research, however current isolation techniques can be prohibitively expensive, time-consuming, and produce variable results. Selectin-coated microtubes have shown promise in rapidly isolating HSPCs from human bone marrow, [...] Read more.
The isolation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is critical for transplantation therapy and HSPC research, however current isolation techniques can be prohibitively expensive, time-consuming, and produce variable results. Selectin-coated microtubes have shown promise in rapidly isolating HSPCs from human bone marrow, but further purification of HSPCs remains a challenge. Herein, a biomimetic device for HSPC isolation is presented to mimic the acidic vascular microenvironment during trauma, which can enhance the binding frequency between L-selectin and its counter-receptor PSGL-1 and HSPCs. Under acidic pH conditions, L-selectin coated microtubes enhanced CD34+ HSPC adhesion, as evidenced by decreased cell rolling velocity and increased rolling flux. Dynamic light scattering was utilized as a novel sensor to confirm an L-selectin conformational change under acidic conditions, as previously predicted by molecular dynamics. These results suggest that mimicking the acidic conditions of trauma can induce a conformational extension of L-selectin, which can be utilized for flow-based, clinical isolation of HSPCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Receptors and Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Data Processing and Quality Evaluation of a Boat-Based Mobile Laser Scanning System
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12497-12515; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912497
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3610 | PDF Full-text (1652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile mapping systems (MMSs) are used for mapping topographic and urban features which are difficult and time consuming to measure with other instruments. The benefits of MMSs include efficient data collection and versatile usability. This paper investigates the data processing steps and quality [...] Read more.
Mobile mapping systems (MMSs) are used for mapping topographic and urban features which are difficult and time consuming to measure with other instruments. The benefits of MMSs include efficient data collection and versatile usability. This paper investigates the data processing steps and quality of a boat-based mobile mapping system (BoMMS) data for generating terrain and vegetation points in a river environment. Our aim in data processing was to filter noise points, detect shorelines as well as points below water surface and conduct ground point classification. Previous studies of BoMMS have investigated elevation accuracies and usability in detection of fluvial erosion and deposition areas. The new findings concerning BoMMS data are that the improved data processing approach allows for identification of multipath reflections and shoreline delineation. We demonstrate the possibility to measure bathymetry data in shallow (0–1 m) and clear water. Furthermore, we evaluate for the first time the accuracy of the BoMMS ground points classification compared to manually classified data. We also demonstrate the spatial variations of the ground point density and assess elevation and vertical accuracies of the BoMMS data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12482-12496; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912482
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2978 | PDF Full-text (1750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. [...] Read more.
A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2013)
Open AccessArticle NO and NO2 Sensing Properties of WO3 and Co3O4 Based Gas Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12467-12481; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912467
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 3498 | PDF Full-text (2047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Semiconductor-based gas sensors that use n-type WO3 or p-type Co3O4 powder were fabricated and their gas sensing properties toward NO2 or NO (0.5–5 ppm in air) were investigated at 100 °C or 200 °C. The resistance of the [...] Read more.
Semiconductor-based gas sensors that use n-type WO3 or p-type Co3O4 powder were fabricated and their gas sensing properties toward NO2 or NO (0.5–5 ppm in air) were investigated at 100 °C or 200 °C. The resistance of the WO3-based sensor increased on exposure to NO2 and NO. On the other hand, the resistance of the Co3O4-based sensor varied depending on the operating temperature and the gas species. The chemical states of the surface of WO3 or those of the Co3O4 powder on exposure to 1 ppm NO2 and NO were investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. No clear differences between the chemical states of the metal oxide surface exposed to NO2 or NO could be detected from the DRIFT spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12431-12466; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912431
Received: 20 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 190 | Viewed by 9648 | PDF Full-text (1288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, [...] Read more.
Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems)
Open AccessArticle Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12406-12430; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912406
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3425 | PDF Full-text (24130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning [...] Read more.
The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Dry Membrane Protection Technique to Allow Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor Measurements of Biological Model Membrane Approaches
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12392-12405; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912392
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3276 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an [...] Read more.
Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Crack Orientation and Depth Estimation in a Low-Pressure Turbine Disc Using a Phased Array Ultrasonic Transducer and an Artificial Neural Network
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12375-12391; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912375
Received: 16 July 2013 / Revised: 28 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3479 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stress corrosion cracks (SCC) in low-pressure steam turbine discs are serious hidden dangers to production safety in the power plants, and knowing the orientation and depth of the initial cracks is essential for the evaluation of the crack growth rate, propagation direction and [...] Read more.
Stress corrosion cracks (SCC) in low-pressure steam turbine discs are serious hidden dangers to production safety in the power plants, and knowing the orientation and depth of the initial cracks is essential for the evaluation of the crack growth rate, propagation direction and working life of the turbine disc. In this paper, a method based on phased array ultrasonic transducer and artificial neural network (ANN), is proposed to estimate both the depth and orientation of initial cracks in the turbine discs. Echo signals from cracks with different depths and orientations were collected by a phased array ultrasonic transducer, and the feature vectors were extracted by wavelet packet, fractal technology and peak amplitude methods. The radial basis function (RBF) neural network was investigated and used in this application. The final results demonstrated that the method presented was efficient in crack estimation tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Sensors Systems for the Automation of Operations in the Ship Repair Industry
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12345-12374; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912345
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3445 | PDF Full-text (9527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, [...] Read more.
Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12329-12344; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912329
Received: 5 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3140 | PDF Full-text (1003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind [...] Read more.
Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS) could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape) of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD). By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape) with the 3D measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Currents Induced by Injected Charge in Junction Detectors
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12295-12328; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912295
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2488 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo-and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a [...] Read more.
The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo-and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo’s expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Sensor Arrangements in Angle of Arrival (AoA) and Range Based Localization with Linear Sensor Arrays
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12277-12294; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912277
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2731 | PDF Full-text (484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the linear separation requirements for Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and range sensors, in order to achieve the optimal performance in estimating the position of a target from multiple and typically noisy sensor measurements. We analyse the sensor-target geometry in terms of the [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the linear separation requirements for Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and range sensors, in order to achieve the optimal performance in estimating the position of a target from multiple and typically noisy sensor measurements. We analyse the sensor-target geometry in terms of the Cramer–Rao inequality and the corresponding Fisher information matrix, in order to characterize localization performance with respect to the linear spatial distribution of sensors. Here in this paper, we consider both fixed and adjustable linear sensor arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Visible Light Communication System Using an Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photodetector
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12266-12276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912266
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3628 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A visible light communication (VLC) system using an organic bulk heterojunction photodetector (OPD) is presented. The system has been successfully proven indoors with an audio signal. The emitter consists of three commercial high-power white LEDs connected in parallel. The receiver is based on [...] Read more.
A visible light communication (VLC) system using an organic bulk heterojunction photodetector (OPD) is presented. The system has been successfully proven indoors with an audio signal. The emitter consists of three commercial high-power white LEDs connected in parallel. The receiver is based on an organic photodetector having as active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The OPD is opto-electrically characterized, showing a responsivity of 0.18 A/W and a modulation response of 790 kHz at −6 V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors)
Open AccessArticle Analytic Performance Prediction of Track-to-Track Association with Biased Data in Multi-Sensor Multi-Target Tracking Scenarios
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12244-12265; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912244
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2335 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An analytic method for predicting the performance of track-to-track association (TTTA) with biased data in multi-sensor multi-target tracking scenarios is proposed in this paper. The proposed method extends the existing results of the bias-free situation by accounting for the impact of sensor biases. [...] Read more.
An analytic method for predicting the performance of track-to-track association (TTTA) with biased data in multi-sensor multi-target tracking scenarios is proposed in this paper. The proposed method extends the existing results of the bias-free situation by accounting for the impact of sensor biases. Since little insight of the intrinsic relationship between scenario parameters and the performance of TTTA can be obtained by numerical simulations, the proposed analytic approach is a potential substitute for the costly Monte Carlo simulation method. Analytic expressions are developed for the global nearest neighbor (GNN) association algorithm in terms of correct association probability. The translational biases of sensors are incorporated in the expressions, which provide good insight into how the TTTA performance is affected by sensor biases, as well as other scenario parameters, including the target spatial density, the extraneous track density and the average association uncertainty error. To show the validity of the analytic predictions, we compare them with the simulation results, and the analytic predictions agree reasonably well with the simulations in a large range of normally anticipated scenario parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle MARS, a Multi-Agent System for Assessing Rowers’ Coordination via Motion-Based Stigmergy
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12218-12243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912218
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3243 | PDF Full-text (5646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A crucial aspect in rowing is having a synchronized, highly-efficient stroke. This is very difficult to obtain, due to the many interacting factors that each rower of the crew must perceive. Having a system that monitors and represents the crew coordination would be [...] Read more.
A crucial aspect in rowing is having a synchronized, highly-efficient stroke. This is very difficult to obtain, due to the many interacting factors that each rower of the crew must perceive. Having a system that monitors and represents the crew coordination would be of great help to the coach during training sessions. In the literature, some methods already employ wireless sensors for capturing motion patterns that affect rowing performance. A challenging problem is to support the coach’s decisions at his same level of knowledge, using a limited number of sensors and avoiding the complexity of the biomechanical analysis of human movements. In this paper, we present a multi-agent information-processing system for on-water measuring of both the overall crew asynchrony and the individual rower asynchrony towards the crew. More specifically, in the system, the first level of processing is managed by marking agents, which release marks in a sensing space, according to the rowers’ motion. The accumulation of marks enables a stigmergic cooperation mechanism, generating collective marks, i.e., short-term memory structures in the sensing space. At the second level of processing, information provided by marks is observed by similarity agents, which associate a similarity degree with respect to optimal marks. Finally, the third level is managed by granulation agents, which extract asynchrony indicators for different purposes. The effectiveness of the system has been experimented on real-world scenarios. The study includes the problem statement and its characterization in the literature, as well as the proposed solving approach and initial experimental setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Fast Thermal Calibration of Low-Grade Inertial Sensors and Inertial Measurement Units
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12192-12217; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912192
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 11 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 4160 | PDF Full-text (1197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such [...] Read more.
The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Elastic Properties of Tomato Fruit Cells with an Atomic Force Microscope
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12175-12191; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912175
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 23 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4142 | PDF Full-text (1054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and [...] Read more.
Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and food processing. For this purpose, indentation of tomato mesocarp cells with an atomic force microscope was used. The Young’s modulus of a cell using the Hertz and Sneddon models, and stiffness were calculated from force-indentation curves. Use of two probes of distinct radius of curvature (20 nm and 10,000 nm) showed that the measured elastic properties were significantly affected by tip geometry. The Young’s modulus was about 100 kPa ± 35 kPa and 20 kPa ± 14 kPa for the sharper tip and a bead tip, respectively. Moreover, large variability regarding elastic properties (>100%) among cells sampled from the same region in the fruit was observed. We showed that AFM provides the possibility of combining nano-mechanical properties with topography imaging, which could be very useful for the study of structure-related properties of fruits and vegetables at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature Stability of the Sky Quality Meter
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12166-12174; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912166
Received: 23 August 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3605 | PDF Full-text (3571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM)was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable lightfield in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated withtemperature, but remained within 7% of the [...] Read more.
The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM)was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable lightfield in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated withtemperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperaturerange of -15 °C to 35 °C, and during temperature changes of -33 °C/h and +70 °C/h.This is smaller than the manufacturer’s quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%,indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Self-Sensing Active Magnetic Bearing Based on a Direct Current Measurement Approach
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12149-12165; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912149
Received: 14 July 2013 / Revised: 18 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3067 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have become a key technology in various industrial applications. Self-sensing AMBs provide an integrated sensorless solution for position estimation, consolidating the sensing and actuating functions into a single electromagnetic transducer. The approach aims to reduce possible hardware failure points, [...] Read more.
Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have become a key technology in various industrial applications. Self-sensing AMBs provide an integrated sensorless solution for position estimation, consolidating the sensing and actuating functions into a single electromagnetic transducer. The approach aims to reduce possible hardware failure points, production costs, and system complexity. Despite these advantages, self-sensing methods must address various technical challenges to maximize the performance thereof. This paper presents the direct current measurement (DCM) approach for self-sensing AMBs, denoting the direct measurement of the current ripple component. In AMB systems, switching power amplifiers (PAs) modulate the rotor position information onto the current waveform. Demodulation self-sensing techniques then use bandpass and lowpass filters to estimate the rotor position from the voltage and current signals. However, the additional phase-shift introduced by these filters results in lower stability margins. The DCM approach utilizes a novel PA switching method that directly measures the current ripple to obtain duty-cycle invariant position estimates. Demodulation filters are largely excluded to minimize additional phase-shift in the position estimates. Basic functionality and performance of the proposed self-sensing approach are demonstrated via a transient simulation model as well as a high current (10 A) experimental system. A digital implementation of amplitude modulation self-sensing serves as a comparative estimator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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