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Diversity, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Differential Occupation of Available Coral Hosts by Coral-Dwelling Damselfish (Pomacentridae) on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110219 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Associations between habitat-forming, branching scleractinian corals and damselfish have critical implications for the function and trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. This study quantifies how different characteristics of reef habitat, and of coral morphology, determine whether fish occupy a coral colony. In situ [...] Read more.
Associations between habitat-forming, branching scleractinian corals and damselfish have critical implications for the function and trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. This study quantifies how different characteristics of reef habitat, and of coral morphology, determine whether fish occupy a coral colony. In situ surveys of aggregative damselfish–coral associations were conducted at 51 different sites distributed among 22 reefs spread along >1700 km of the Great Barrier Reef, to quantify interaction frequency over a large spatial scale. The prevalence of fish–coral associations between five damselfish (Chromis viridis, Dascyllus aruanus, Dascyllus reticulatus, Pomacentrus amboinensis and Pomacentrus moluccensis) and five coral species (Acropora spathulata, Acropora intermedia, Pocillopora damicornis, Seriatopora hystrix, and Stylophora pistillata) averaged ~30% across all corals, but ranged from <1% to 93% of small branching corals occupied at each site, depending on reef exposure levels and habitat. Surprisingly, coral cover was not correlated with coral occupancy, or total biomass of damselfish. Instead, the biomass of damselfish was two-fold greater on sheltered sites compared with exposed sites. Reef habitat type strongly governed these interactions with reef slope/base (25%) and shallow sand-patch habitats (38%) hosting a majority of aggregative damselfish-branching coral associations compared to reef flat (10%), crest (16%), and wall habitats (11%). Among the focal coral species, Seriatopora hystrix hosted the highest damselfish biomass (12.45 g per occupied colony) and Acropora intermedia the least (6.87 g per occupied colony). Analyses of local coral colony traits indicated that multiple factors governed colony usage, including spacing between colonies on the benthos, colony position, and colony branching patterns. Nevertheless, the morphological and habitat characteristics that determine whether or not a colony is occupied by fish varied among coral species. These findings illuminate the realized niche of one of the most important and abundant reef fish families and provide a context for understanding how fish–coral interactions influence coral population and community level processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Coral-Associated Fauna)
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Open AccessArticle
Dactylonectria and Ilyonectria Species Causing Black Foot Disease of Andean Blackberry (Rubus Glaucus Benth) in Ecuador
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110218 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) plants from the provinces of Tungurahua and Bolivar (Ecuador) started showing symptoms of black foot disease since 2010. Wilted plants were sampled in both provinces from 2014 to 2017, and fungal isolates were obtained from tissues surrounding [...] Read more.
Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) plants from the provinces of Tungurahua and Bolivar (Ecuador) started showing symptoms of black foot disease since 2010. Wilted plants were sampled in both provinces from 2014 to 2017, and fungal isolates were obtained from tissues surrounding necrotic lesions in the cortex of the roots and crown. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequencing of histone 3 and the translation elongation factor 1α gene, isolates were identified as one of seven species, Ilyonectria vredehoekensis, Ilyonectria robusta, Ilyonectria venezuelensis, Ilyonectria europaea, Dactylonectria torresensis, or Dactylonectria novozelandica. Pathogenicity tests with isolates from each species, excluding I. europaea and D. novozelandica whose isolates were lost due to contamination, confirmed that the four species tested can produce black foot disease symptoms in Andean blackberry. This is the first report of Dactylonectria and Ilyonectria species causing black foot disease of Andean blackberry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Diversity and Culture Collections)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Land Use on Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Temperate Pine and Indigenous Forest Soils
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110217 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Soil microbial communities are an important part of ecosystems that possess the capability to improve ecosystem services; however, several aspects of the ecology of forest soil bacterial communities are still unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of land-use change on soil bacterial communities [...] Read more.
Soil microbial communities are an important part of ecosystems that possess the capability to improve ecosystem services; however, several aspects of the ecology of forest soil bacterial communities are still unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of land-use change on soil bacterial communities and the soil characteristics. High-throughput sequencing was used to ascertain the bacterial diversity and canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine relationships between the bacterial communities and environmental variables. Our results show spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of the microbial communities and significant relationships between the microbes and soil characteristics (axis 1 of the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) plot explained 64.55% of the total variance while axis 2 described 24.49%). Knowledge of this is essential as it has direct consequences for the functioning of the soil ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Diversity and Culture Collections)
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Open AccessReview
Old Processes, New Movements: The Inclusion of Geodiversity in Biological and Ecological Discourse
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110216 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
There exists substantial variation in the qualitative and quantitative interpretations of the concept of geodiversity and its embedded elements and values. The resulting divergence and ambiguity in applications of the term constrain its present use as an operationalized concept in nature conservation research [...] Read more.
There exists substantial variation in the qualitative and quantitative interpretations of the concept of geodiversity and its embedded elements and values. The resulting divergence and ambiguity in applications of the term constrain its present use as an operationalized concept in nature conservation research and discourse, unlike its seemingly analogous biotic term, ‘biodiversity’. This paper presents findings from a critical literature review of 299 academic journal articles and texts that define geodiversity values, or otherwise incorporate geodiversity or its derived elements and values as components of conservation. Contrary to previous suggestions, we have found that most geoscientists have united behind a single definition of geodiversity and applied it frequently in their primary and applied, geotouristic, research. Qualitative elements of geodiversity, including system support values and aesthetic appeals within nature conservation, have been largely confined to geoconservation and geoscientific literature and are nearly absent from biological discourse. Encouragingly, however, we have observed a more recent increase in research pertaining to quantitative interpretations of abiotic geodiversity elements and their relationship with the spatial distribution and abundance of species. Although the inclusion of geodiversity elements (quantitative and qualitative) in conservation assessment and biodiversity research has been and remains far less universal than for biodiversity elements, there is strong potential for further unification of these two concepts, especially though collaborative quantitative research. The more that geodiversity is discussed outside of geographic and geoscientific disciplines, broader recognition and validated use of the concept of geodiversity will be used in the understanding, interpretation, and protection of patterns and processes at the landscape scale. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Abrupt Change in a Subtidal Rocky Reef Community Coincided with a Rapid Acceleration of Sea Water Warming
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110215 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Seawater warming is impacting marine ecosystems, but proper evaluation of change requires the availability of long-term biological data series. Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, Italy) offers one of the longest Mediterranean data series on sessile epibenthic communities, based on underwater photographic surveys. Photographs taken [...] Read more.
Seawater warming is impacting marine ecosystems, but proper evaluation of change requires the availability of long-term biological data series. Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, Italy) offers one of the longest Mediterranean data series on sessile epibenthic communities, based on underwater photographic surveys. Photographs taken in four stations between 20 m and 40 m depth allowed calculating the percent cover of conspicuous species in 1961, 1990, 1996, 2008, and 2017. Multivariate analysis evidenced an abrupt compositional change between 1990 and 1996. A parallel change was observed in Ligurian Sea temperatures. Two invasive macroalgae (Caulerpa cylindracea and Womersleyella setacea) became dominant after 1996. Community diversity was low in 1961 to 1996, rapidly increased between 1996 and 2008, and exhibited distinctly higher values in 2008–2017. A novel community emerged from the climate shift of the 1990s, with many once characteristic species lost, reduced complexity, biotic homogenization, greater diversity and domination by aliens. Only continued monitoring will help envisage the possibility for a reversal of the present phase shift or for further transformations driven by global change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Change Effects on Marine Benthos)
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Open AccessReview
Strategies for Sustainable Use of Indigenous Cattle Genetic Resources in Southern Africa
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110214 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Indigenous cattle breeds are the most important livestock species in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region owing to their role in human food, nutrition, income, and social security. Despite the role of these breeds in the household and national economies, they are [...] Read more.
Indigenous cattle breeds are the most important livestock species in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region owing to their role in human food, nutrition, income, and social security. Despite the role of these breeds in the household and national economies, they are currently underutilised, their productivity remains low, and populations are faced with extinction. In addition, there are insufficient measures taken to secure their present and future value. The current review highlights strategies for sustainable use of indigenous cattle genetic resources in the region, including the use of novel production and marketing practices, women and youth empowerment, and development of the appropriate capacity building, legislative, and policy structures. At present, the lack of coordination among the different stakeholders still poses a challenge to the implementation of these strategies. To this end, partnerships, collaboration, and stakeholders’ participation are recommended to effectively implement strategies for sustainable use of indigenous cattle breeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation of Rare Breeds of Livestock)
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Open AccessInteresting Images
The Spotted Cleaner Shrimp, Periclimenes yucatanicus (Ives, 1891), on an Unusual Scleractinian Host
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110213 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
The spotted cleaner shrimp, Periclimenes yucatanicus (Ives, 1891), forms symbioses with sea anemones that may serve as cleaning stations for reef fishes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Coral-Associated Fauna)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Preservation of the Beak in Confuciusornis (Aves: Pygostylia)
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110212 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Confuciusornithiformes represent the most stem-ward avian occurrence of an edentulous rostrum. Although a keratinous beak is widely considered to have covered the rostrum in confuciusornithiforms, this feature is almost never preserved, having been previously reported only in the holotype of Confuciusornis dui [...] Read more.
The Confuciusornithiformes represent the most stem-ward avian occurrence of an edentulous rostrum. Although a keratinous beak is widely considered to have covered the rostrum in confuciusornithiforms, this feature is almost never preserved, having been previously reported only in the holotype of Confuciusornis dui and the holotype of Eoconfuciusornis zhengi. This strongly contrasts with the widespread preservation of the keratinous sheaths that cover the manual and pedal ungual phalanges. Here, we report on a third occurrence of a preserved rhamphotheca in a specimen of Confuciusornis sanctus. We illuminated the preserved traces using laser-stimulated fluorescence. Similarly to E. zhengi, the rhamphotheca has been preserved only as a two-dimensional trace, whereas ungual sheaths are preserved in three dimensions. In contrast to the traces preserved in C. dui, the rhamphotheca in the discussed specimen of C. sanctus is straight rather than upturned. This hints towards hidden morphological diversity within the thousands of Confuciusornis specimens, in which species may be further differentiated by soft tissue features or behaviors, much like many living birds, that cannot be detected in fossils, even with exceptional preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origins of Modern Avian Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Biological Fertility and Bacterial Community Response to Land Use Intensity: A Case Study in the Mediterranean Area
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110211 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
The current study was performed to investigate the effects of three different long-term land use intensities on adjacent soil plots, namely a winter wheat field, a grass-covered vineyard, and a cherry farm, on soil biochemical, microbial, and molecular parameters. The results showed the [...] Read more.
The current study was performed to investigate the effects of three different long-term land use intensities on adjacent soil plots, namely a winter wheat field, a grass-covered vineyard, and a cherry farm, on soil biochemical, microbial, and molecular parameters. The results showed the maximum content of soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) observed in the grass-covered vineyard. Basal respiration (BSR) and the cumulated respiration (CSR) after 25 days of incubation were significantly higher in the grass-covered vineyard and cherry farm, respectively (BSR 11.84 mg CO2–C kg−1 soil d−1, CSR 226.90 mg CO2–C kg−1 soil). Grass-covered vineyard showed the highest soil biological fertility index (BFI) score (20) and ranked in the class IV (good) of soil biological fertility. Cereal field and cherry farm had lower BFI scores and the corresponding BFI class was III (medium). In addition, the maximum ribosomal RNA copy number and the highest abundance of oligotrophic bacterial groups (25.52% Actinobacteria, 3.45% Firmicutes, and 1.38% Acidobacteria) were observed in the grass-covered vineyard. In conclusion, the grass-covered vineyard is a more conservative system and could have a large potential to improve total carbon storage in soil, mainly because of the cover crop residue management and the low soil perturbation through the no-tillage system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity of Soil Bacterial Communities)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Habitat Loss and Mining on the Distribution of Endemic Species of Amphibians and Reptiles in Mexico
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110210 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Mexico holds an exceptional diversity and endemicity of amphibian and reptile species, but several factors pose a threat to their conservation. Here, we produced ecological niche models for 179 Mexican endemic amphibian and reptile species and examined the impact of habitat loss and [...] Read more.
Mexico holds an exceptional diversity and endemicity of amphibian and reptile species, but several factors pose a threat to their conservation. Here, we produced ecological niche models for 179 Mexican endemic amphibian and reptile species and examined the impact of habitat loss and mining activities on their projected potential distributions, resulting in their extant distributions. We compared extant species distributions to the area required to conserve a minimum proportion of the species distribution. The combined impact of habitat loss and mining on extant species distribution was significantly higher than the impact of habitat loss alone. Only 40 species lost <30% of their distribution, while 83 species lost between 30–50%, 54 species lost between 50–80%, and 2 species lost more than 80% of their distribution. Furthermore, the size and configuration of the area required to conserve 20% of the extant species distributions changed considerably by increasing the number of fragments, with a potential increase in local population extirpations. Our study is the first to address the combined impact of habitat loss and mining on a highly vulnerable rich endemic species group, leading to a decrease in their potential distribution and a potential increase in the extinction risk of species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Conservation of Neotropical Amphibians and Reptiles)
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Open AccessArticle
Aquatic Macrophytes are Seasonally Important Dietary Resources for Moose
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110209 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
Moose (Alces alces) are generalist herbivores, but are important aquatic-terrestrial ecotone specialists. Aquatic macrophytes are a high-quality food source for moose during summer, but the importance of aquatic food sources to the moose diet is difficult to study. We used stable [...] Read more.
Moose (Alces alces) are generalist herbivores, but are important aquatic-terrestrial ecotone specialists. Aquatic macrophytes are a high-quality food source for moose during summer, but the importance of aquatic food sources to the moose diet is difficult to study. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen from moose hooves and forage (terrestrial plants, aquatic macrophytes, and arboreal lichen) to assess the diet of moose at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA, using Bayesian mixing models. We also evaluated the isotopic variability along chronologies of serially sampled hooves. Overall, our mixing models indicate that 13%–27% of the summer moose diet was aquatic in origin. Among moose that died during winter, body condition was impaired and hoof δ15N was higher where aquatic habitats were sparse. Although isotope chronologies preserved in hooves could significantly enhance our understanding of ungulate foraging ecology, interpretation of such chronologies is presently limited by our lack of knowledge pertaining to hoof growth rate and seasonal growth variability related to age and health. Distinct isotopic values among terrestrial plants, aquatic macrophytes, and arboreal lichens indicate that continued methodological advances in stable isotope ecology will lead to more precise estimates of the contribution of aquatic feeding to moose population dynamics and other ungulates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stable Isotopes in Ecological Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Changing Vegetation Composition on Community Structure, Ecosystem Functioning, and Predator–Prey Interactions at the Saltmarsh-Mangrove Ecotone
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110208 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
Decreasing frequency of freeze events due to climate change is enabling the poleward range expansion of mangroves. As these tropical trees expand poleward, they are replacing herbaceous saltmarsh vegetation. Mangroves and saltmarsh vegetation are ecosystem engineers that are typically viewed as having similar [...] Read more.
Decreasing frequency of freeze events due to climate change is enabling the poleward range expansion of mangroves. As these tropical trees expand poleward, they are replacing herbaceous saltmarsh vegetation. Mangroves and saltmarsh vegetation are ecosystem engineers that are typically viewed as having similar ecosystem functions. However, few studies have investigated whether predation regimes, community structure, and ecosystem functions are shifting at the saltmarsh-mangrove ecotone. In this study, we manipulated predator access to marsh and mangrove creekside habitats to test their role in mediating vegetation and invertebrate structure and stability in a two-year experiment. We also conducted a survey to evaluate how shifting vegetation is modifying structural complexity, invertebrate communities, and ecosystem functioning at the ecotone. Excluding larger (> 2 cm diameter) predators did not affect vegetation or invertebrate structure or stability in either saltmarsh or mangrove habitats. The survey revealed that the two habitat types consistently differ in structural metrics, including vegetation height, inter-stem distance, and density, yet they support similar invertebrate and algal communities, soil properties, and predation rates. We conclude that although mangrove range expansion immediately modifies habitat structural properties, it is not altering larger predator consumptive effects, community stability, community composition, or some other ecosystem functions and properties at the ecotone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Ecosystem Engineers in the World Coasts and Oceans)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioindication of the Influence of Oil Production on Sphagnum Bogs in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra, Russia
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110207 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
Algal diversity in the bogs of the Ershov oil field of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra (KMAO-Yugra) with the gradient of oil pollution between 255 and 16,893 mg kg−1 has been studied with the help of bioindication methods and ecological mapping. Altogether 91 [...] Read more.
Algal diversity in the bogs of the Ershov oil field of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra (KMAO-Yugra) with the gradient of oil pollution between 255 and 16,893 mg kg−1 has been studied with the help of bioindication methods and ecological mapping. Altogether 91 species, varieties, and forms of algae and cyanobacteria from seven divisions have been revealed for the first time from seven studied sites on the bogs. Charophyta algae prevail followed by diatoms, cyanobacteria, and euglenoids. The species richness and abundance of algae were maximal at the control site, with charophytic algae prevailing. The species richness of diatoms decreased in the contaminated area, but cyanobacteria were tolerated in a pH which varied between 4.0 and 5.4. Euglenoid algae survived under the influence of oil and organic pollution. Bioindication revealed a salinity influence in the oil-contaminated sites. A comparative floristic analysis shows a similarity in communities at sites surrounding the contaminated area, the ecosystems of which have a long-term rehabilitation period. The percent of unique species was maximal in the control site. Bioindication results were implemented for the first time in assessing the oil-polluted bogs and can be recommended as a method to obtain scientific results visualization for decision-makers and for future pollution monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Algal Diversity and Bio-Indication of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Algae Diversity and Ecology during a Summer Assessment of Water Quality in the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park, USA
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110206 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
There were 88 species of algae and cyanobacteria observed from seven sites in the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park (Hodgenville, Kentucky, USA). This was the first algal investigation study in the park. There were 21 samples collected, during the summer, on 16 [...] Read more.
There were 88 species of algae and cyanobacteria observed from seven sites in the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park (Hodgenville, Kentucky, USA). This was the first algal investigation study in the park. There were 21 samples collected, during the summer, on 16 July 2008. Algal flora, dominated by diatoms was represented by 54 species identified (61.4% of the total), 20 species of cyanobacteria, 11 green and two charophyte algal species, and one red algal species (22.7%, 12.5%, 2.2%, and 1.1%, respectively). Benthic diatoms dominated the aquatic system with 14 species of Navicula and 12 species of Nitzschia identified, which was 15.7% and 13.5% of the total, respectively. Species tended to be site specific and 78.6% of the species were only found in two or less sites. The bioindicator methods for water quality assessment were based on species autoecology. This method was used for the first time in the USA during this study. This demonstrated that benthic and planktonic-benthic algae preferred temperate temperatures, middle-oxygenated mesotrophic waters, low-to-middle enriched by chlorides. The waters were well oxygenated, sometimes saturated by sulfides, low-alkaline, low-to-middle organic enriched, and of class 1–3 water quality with high self-purification capacity. This is very important for habitat protection and cannot be easily accomplished strictly through chemical analysis. The diversity of diatom algae not only plays a major role in the formation of algal communities and their uniqueness, but diatom algae can be a good indicator of environmental assessments and change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Algal Diversity and Bio-Indication of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Traits Co-Occurring with Mobile Genetic Elements in the Microbiome of the Atacama Desert
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110205 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play an essential role in bacterial adaptation and evolution. These elements are enriched within bacterial communities from extreme environments. However, very little is known if specific genes co-occur with MGEs in extreme environments and, if so, what their function [...] Read more.
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play an essential role in bacterial adaptation and evolution. These elements are enriched within bacterial communities from extreme environments. However, very little is known if specific genes co-occur with MGEs in extreme environments and, if so, what their function is. We used shotgun-sequencing to analyse the metagenomes of 12 soil samples and characterized the composition of MGEs and the genes co-occurring with them. The samples ranged from less arid coastal sites to the inland hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, as well as from sediments below boulders, protected from UV-irradiation. MGEs were enriched at the hyperarid sites compared with sediments from below boulders and less arid sites. MGEs were mostly co-occurring with genes belonging to the Cluster Orthologous Group (COG) categories “replication, recombination and repair,” “transcription” and “signal transduction mechanisms.” In general, genes coding for transcriptional regulators and histidine kinases were the most abundant genes proximal to MGEs. Genes involved in energy production were significantly enriched close to MGEs at the hyperarid sites. For example, dehydrogenases, reductases, hydrolases and chlorite dismutase and other enzymes linked to nitrogen metabolism such as nitrite- and nitro-reductase. Stress response genes, including genes involved in antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes, were rarely found near MGEs. The present study suggests that MGEs could play an essential role in the adaptation of the soil microbiome in hyperarid desert soils by the modulation of housekeeping genes such as those involved in energy production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Biotechnological Potential of the Novel Species Pseudomonas wadenswilerensis CCOS 864T and Pseudomonas reidholzensis CCOS 865T
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110204 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
In recent years, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts and biocatalytic enzymes in biotechnological applications originating from the genus Pseudomonas has greatly increased. In 2014, two new species within the Pseudomonas putida group were isolated from Swiss forest soil. In this study, the high [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts and biocatalytic enzymes in biotechnological applications originating from the genus Pseudomonas has greatly increased. In 2014, two new species within the Pseudomonas putida group were isolated from Swiss forest soil. In this study, the high quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas wadenswilerensis CCOS 864T and Pseudomonas reidholzensis CCOS 865T were used in a comparative genomics approach to identify genomic features that either differed between these two new species or to selected members of the P. putida group. The genomes of P. wadenswilerensis CCOS 864T and P. reidholzensis CCOS 865T were found to share genomic features for the degradation of aromatic compounds or the synthesis of secondary metabolites. In particular, genes encoding for biocatalytic relevant enzymes belonging to the class of oxidoreductases, proteases and isomerases were found, that could yield potential applications in biotechnology. Ecologically relevant features revealed that both species are probably playing an important role in the degradation of soil organic material, the accumulation of phosphate and biocontrol against plant pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pseudomonas Biology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Zooplankton Abundance and Diversity in the Tropical and Subtropical Ocean
Diversity 2019, 11(11), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11110203 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
The abundance and composition of zooplankton down to 3000 m depth was studied in the subtropical and tropical latitudes across the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans (35 °N–40 °S). Samples were collected from December 2010 to June 2011 during the Malaspina Circumnavigation Expedition. [...] Read more.
The abundance and composition of zooplankton down to 3000 m depth was studied in the subtropical and tropical latitudes across the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans (35 °N–40 °S). Samples were collected from December 2010 to June 2011 during the Malaspina Circumnavigation Expedition. Usually, low abundances were observed with the highest values found in the North Pacific Ocean, Benguela, and off Mauritania, and the lowest in the South Pacific Ocean. No significant differences in abundance and zooplankton composition were found among oceans, with depth being consistently the most important factor affecting their distribution. Each depth strata were inhabited by distinct copepod assemblages, which significantly differed among the strata. The contribution of copepods to the zooplankton community increased with the depth although, as expected, their abundance strongly decreased. Among the copepods, 265 species were identified but 85% were rare and contributed less than 1% in abundance. Clausocalanus furcatus and Nannocalanus minor dominated the epipelagic strata. Pleuromamma abdominalis and Lucicutia clausi were of importance in the mesopelagic layer, and Pareucalanus, Triconia, Conaea and Metridia brevicauda in the bathypelagic layer. Our results provide a global-scale assessment of copepod biodiversity and distribution, providing a contemporary benchmark to follow future ocean changes at low latitudes. Full article
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