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Article

Microglial Activation in the Retina of a Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model (3xTg-AD)

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Oftalmológicas Ramón Castroviejo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Center for innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal
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Fac. Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain
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Fac. Medicina, Departamento de Oftalmología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 20040 Madrid, Spain
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AIBILI-Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030816
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 24 January 2020 / Accepted: 25 January 2020 / Published: 27 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease II)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia in the world. The main biomarkers associated with AD are protein amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and protein tau neurofibrillary tangles, which are responsible for brain neuroinflammation mediated by microglial cells. Increasing evidence has shown that the retina can also be affected in AD, presenting some molecular and cellular changes in the brain, such as microglia activation. However, there are only a few studies assessing such changes in the retinal microglia in animal models of AD. These studies use retinal sections, which have some limitations. In this study, we performed, for the first time in a triple-transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD), a quantitative morphometric analysis of microglia activation (using the anti-Iba-1 antibody) in retinal whole-mounts, allowing visualization of the entire microglial cell, as well as its localization along the extension of the retina in different layers. Compared to age-matched animals, the retina of 3xTg-AD mice presents a higher number of microglial cells and a thicker microglial cell body area. Moreover, the microglia migrate, reorient, and retract their processes, changing their localization from a parallel to a perpendicular position relative to the retinal surface. These findings demonstrate clear microglia remodeling in the retina of 3xTg-AD mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; retina; neuroinflammation; microglia; triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model; 3xTg-AD; morphometric analysis Alzheimer’s disease; retina; neuroinflammation; microglia; triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model; 3xTg-AD; morphometric analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salobrar-García, E.; Rodrigues-Neves, A.C.; Ramírez, A.I.; de Hoz, R.; Fernández-Albarral, J.A.; López-Cuenca, I.; Ramírez, J.M.; Ambrósio, A.F.; Salazar, J.J. Microglial Activation in the Retina of a Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model (3xTg-AD). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 816. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030816

AMA Style

Salobrar-García E, Rodrigues-Neves AC, Ramírez AI, de Hoz R, Fernández-Albarral JA, López-Cuenca I, Ramírez JM, Ambrósio AF, Salazar JJ. Microglial Activation in the Retina of a Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model (3xTg-AD). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(3):816. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030816

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salobrar-García, Elena, Ana C. Rodrigues-Neves, Ana I. Ramírez, Rosa de Hoz, José A. Fernández-Albarral, Inés López-Cuenca, José M. Ramírez, António F. Ambrósio, and Juan J. Salazar 2020. "Microglial Activation in the Retina of a Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model (3xTg-AD)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 3: 816. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030816

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