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Effect of Acrylamide Supplementation on the Population of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-Like Immunoreactive Neurons in the Porcine Small Intestine

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249691
Received: 3 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Toxicants)
Acrylamide is one of the harmful substances present in food. The present study aimed to establish the effect of acrylamide supplementation in tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0.5 µg/kg b.w./day) and a dose ten times higher than TDI (5 µg/kg b.w./day) on the population of vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactive (VIP-LI) neurons in the porcine small intestine and the degree of the co-localization of VIP with other neuroactive substances (neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), substance P (SP), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)). In our work, 15 Danish landrace gilts (5 in each experimental group) received capsules (empty or with low or high doses of acrylamide) for a period of 28 days with their morning feeding. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we established that acrylamide supplementation increased the number of neurons showing immunoreactivity towards VIP in all types of enteric nervous system (ENS) plexuses and fragments of the small intestine studied. Moreover, both doses of acrylamide led to changes in the degree of co-localization of VIP with nNOS, SP, and CART in intramural neurons. The observed changes may be the adaptation of neurons to local inflammation, oxidative stress, or the direct toxic effects of acrylamide on intestinal neurons, also referred to as neuronal plasticity. View Full-Text
Keywords: acrylamide; vasoactive intestinal peptide; small intestine; enteric nervous system; pig acrylamide; vasoactive intestinal peptide; small intestine; enteric nervous system; pig
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palus, K.; Bulc, M.; Całka, J. Effect of Acrylamide Supplementation on the Population of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-Like Immunoreactive Neurons in the Porcine Small Intestine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9691. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249691

AMA Style

Palus K, Bulc M, Całka J. Effect of Acrylamide Supplementation on the Population of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-Like Immunoreactive Neurons in the Porcine Small Intestine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9691. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249691

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palus, Katarzyna, Michał Bulc, and Jarosław Całka. 2020. "Effect of Acrylamide Supplementation on the Population of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-Like Immunoreactive Neurons in the Porcine Small Intestine" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9691. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249691

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