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Open AccessReview

The Use of Nanomaterials in Tissue Engineering for Cartilage Regeneration; Current Approaches and Future Perspectives

1
Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, 5515878151 Maragheh, Iran
2
Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166614756 Tabriz, Iran
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Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Science, 5166614756 Tabriz, Iran
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Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166614756 Tabriz, Iran
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Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166614756 Tabriz, Iran
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Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166614756 Tabriz, Iran
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Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, 9414975516 Bojnurd, Iran
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Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166614756 Tabriz, Iran
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Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020536
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Cartilage Repair in Complex Biological Situations)
The repair and regeneration of articular cartilage represent important challenges for orthopedic investigators and surgeons worldwide due to its avascular, aneural structure, cellular arrangement, and dense extracellular structure. Although abundant efforts have been paid to provide tissue-engineered grafts, the use of therapeutically cell-based options for repairing cartilage remains unsolved in the clinic. Merging a clinical perspective with recent progress in nanotechnology can be helpful for developing efficient cartilage replacements. Nanomaterials, < 100 nm structural elements, can control different properties of materials by collecting them at nanometric sizes. The integration of nanomaterials holds promise in developing scaffolds that better simulate the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment of cartilage to enhance the interaction of scaffold with the cells and improve the functionality of the engineered-tissue construct. This technology not only can be used for the healing of focal defects but can also be used for extensive osteoarthritic degenerative alterations in the joint. In this review paper, we will emphasize the recent investigations of articular cartilage repair/regeneration via biomaterials. Also, the application of novel technologies and materials is discussed.
Keywords: nanomaterial; cartilage tissue engineering; regenerative medicine nanomaterial; cartilage tissue engineering; regenerative medicine
MDPI and ACS Style

Eftekhari, A.; Maleki Dizaj, S.; Sharifi, S.; Salatin, S.; Rahbar Saadat, Y.; Zununi Vahed, S.; Samiei, M.; Ardalan, M.; Rameshrad, M.; Ahmadian, E.; Cucchiarini, M. The Use of Nanomaterials in Tissue Engineering for Cartilage Regeneration; Current Approaches and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 536.

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