The aim of the study was to examine the effect of previous pregnancies and classical cardiovascular risk factors on vascular endothelial function in a group of 264 young and middle-aged women 3 to 11 years postpartum. We examined microvascular functions by peripheral arterial tonometry and EndoPAT 2000 device with respect to a history of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, the severity of the disease with regard to the degree of clinical signs and delivery date. Besides, we compared Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) values and the prevalence of vascular endothelial dysfunction among the groups of women with normal and abnormal values of BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, total serum cholesterol levels, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, serum triglycerides levels, serum lipoprotein A levels, serum C-reactive protein levels, serum uric acid levels, and plasma homocysteine levels. Furthermore, we determined the effect of total number of pregnancies and total parity per woman, infertility and blood pressure treatment, presence of trombophilic gene mutations, current smoking of cigarettes, and current hormonal contraceptive use on the vascular endothelial function. We also examined the association between the vascular endothelial function and postpartum whole peripheral blood expression of microRNAs involved in pathogenesis of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases (miR-1-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-100-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-210-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, miR-499a-5p, and miR-574-3p). A proportion of overweight women (17.94% and 20.59%) and women with central obesity (18.64% and 21.19%) had significantly lower RHI values at 10.0% false positive rate (FPR) both before and after adjustment of the data for the age of patients. At 10.0% FPR, a proportion of women with vascular endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67) was identified to have up-regulated expression profile of miR-1-3p (11.76%), miR-23a-3p (17.65%), and miR-499a-5p (18.82%) in whole peripheral blood. RHI values also negatively correlated with expression of miR-1-3p, miR-23a-3p, and miR-499a-5p in whole peripheral blood. Otherwise, no significant impact of other studied factors on vascular endothelial function was found. We suppose that screening of these particular microRNAs associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction may help to stratify a highly risky group of young and middle-aged women that would benefit from early implementation of primary prevention strategies. Nevertheless, it is obvious, that vascular endothelial dysfunction is just one out of multiple cardiovascular risk factors which has only a partial impact on abnormal expression of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease associated microRNAs in whole peripheral blood of young and middle-aged women.