Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling is essential for the growth and differentiation of the normal prostate and is the primary target for androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. Tat interactive protein 60 kDa (Tip60) is a histone acetyltransferase that is critical for AR activation. It is well known that cancer cells rewire their metabolic pathways in order to sustain aberrant proliferation. Growing evidence demonstrates that the AR and Tip60 modulate key metabolic processes to promote the survival of prostate cancer cells, in addition to their classical roles. AR activation enhances glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as lipid metabolism in prostate cancer. The AR also interacts with other metabolic regulators, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 and mammalian target of rapamycin. Several studies have revealed the roles of Tip60 in determining cell fate indirectly by modulating metabolic regulators, such as c-Myc, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and p53 in various cancer types. Furthermore, Tip60 has been shown to regulate the activity of key enzymes in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis directly through acetylation. Overall, both the AR and Tip60 are master metabolic regulators that mediate cellular energy metabolism in prostate cancer, providing a framework for the development of novel therapeutic targets in androgen-dependent prostate cancer.
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