Animal and human mechanistic studies have consistently shown an association between obesity and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD, a degenerative brain disease, is the most common cause of dementia and is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles disposition. Some studies have recently demonstrated that Aβ and tau cannot fully explain the pathophysiological development of AD and that metabolic disease factors, such as insulin, adiponectin, and antioxidants, are important for the sporadic onset of nongenetic AD. Obesity prevention and treatment can be an efficacious and safe approach to AD prevention. Adiponectin is a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation. It has been shown to be inversely correlated with adipose tissue dysfunction and may enhance the risk of AD because a range of neuroprotection adiponectin mechanisms is related to AD pathology alleviation. In this study, we summarize the recent progress that addresses the beneficial effects and potential mechanisms of adiponectin in AD. Furthermore, we review recent studies on the diverse medications of adiponectin that could possibly be related to AD treatment, with a focus on their association with adiponectin. A better understanding of the neuroprotection roles of adiponectin will help clarify the precise underlying mechanism of AD development and progression.
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