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Open AccessArticle

Lithium Chloride Sensitivity in Yeast and Regulation of Translation

1
Department of Biology and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
2
Department of Biochemistry, Research and Innovation Centre, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
3
Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
4
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa Research and Development Centre (ORDC), Ottawa, ON K1Y 4X2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165730
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Synthesis and Disease)
For decades, lithium chloride (LiCl) has been used as a treatment option for those living with bipolar disorder (BD). As a result, many studies have been conducted to examine its mode of action, toxicity, and downstream cellular responses. We know that LiCl is able to affect cell signaling and signaling transduction pathways through protein kinase C and glycogen synthase kinase-3, which are considered to be important in regulating gene expression at the translational level. However, additional downstream effects require further investigation, especially in translation pathway. In yeast, LiCl treatment affects the expression, and thus the activity, of PGM2, a phosphoglucomutase involved in sugar metabolism. Inhibition of PGM2 leads to the accumulation of intermediate metabolites of galactose metabolism causing cell toxicity. However, it is not fully understood how LiCl affects gene expression in this matter. In this study, we identified three genes, NAM7, PUS2, and RPL27B, which increase yeast LiCl sensitivity when deleted. We further demonstrate that NAM7, PUS2, and RPL27B influence translation and exert their activity through the 5′-Untranslated region (5′-UTR) of PGM2 mRNA in yeast. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium chloride; mode of activity; toxicity; bipolar disorder; side effects; gene expression; yeast; translation lithium chloride; mode of activity; toxicity; bipolar disorder; side effects; gene expression; yeast; translation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hajikarimlou, M.; Hunt, K.; Kirby, G.; Takallou, S.; Jagadeesan, S.K.; Omidi, K.; Hooshyar, M.; Burnside, D.; Moteshareie, H.; Babu, M.; Smith, M.; Holcik, M.; Samanfar, B.; Golshani, A. Lithium Chloride Sensitivity in Yeast and Regulation of Translation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165730

AMA Style

Hajikarimlou M, Hunt K, Kirby G, Takallou S, Jagadeesan SK, Omidi K, Hooshyar M, Burnside D, Moteshareie H, Babu M, Smith M, Holcik M, Samanfar B, Golshani A. Lithium Chloride Sensitivity in Yeast and Regulation of Translation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(16):5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hajikarimlou, Maryam; Hunt, Kathryn; Kirby, Grace; Takallou, Sarah; Jagadeesan, Sasi K.; Omidi, Katayoun; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Burnside, Daniel; Moteshareie, Houman; Babu, Mohan; Smith, Myron; Holcik, Martin; Samanfar, Bahram; Golshani, Ashkan. 2020. "Lithium Chloride Sensitivity in Yeast and Regulation of Translation" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 16: 5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165730

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