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Review

HIV Associated Risk Factors for Ischemic Stroke and Future Perspectives

1
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
2
Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
3
Division of Rehabilitation Sciences and Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Professions, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
6
Neuroscience Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155306
Received: 11 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 22 July 2020 / Published: 26 July 2020
Although retroviral therapy (ART) has changed the HIV infection from a fatal event to a chronic disease, treated HIV patients demonstrate high prevalence of HIV associated comorbidities including cardio/cerebrovascular diseases. The incidence of stroke in HIV infected subjects is three times higher than that of uninfected controls. Several clinical and postmortem studies have documented the higher incidence of ischemic stroke in HIV infected patients. The etiology of stroke in HIV infected patients remains unknown; however, several factors such as coagulopathies, opportunistic infections, vascular abnormalities, atherosclerosis and diabetes can contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke. In addition, chronic administration of ART contributes to the increased risk of stroke in HIV infected patients. Concurrently, experimental studies in murine model of ischemic stroke demonstrated that HIV infection worsens stroke outcome, increases blood brain barrier permeability and increases neuroinflammation. Additionally, residual HIV viral proteins, such as Trans-Activator of Transcription, glycoprotein 120 and Negative regulatory factor, contribute to the pathogenesis. This review presents comprehensive information detailing the risk factors contributing to ischemic stroke in HIV infected patients. It also outlines experimental evidence demonstrating the impact of HIV infection on stroke outcomes, in addition to possible novel therapeutic approaches to improve these outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic stroke; HIV; extracellular vesicles; glycoprotein-120; trans-activator of transcription ischemic stroke; HIV; extracellular vesicles; glycoprotein-120; trans-activator of transcription
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ismael, S.; Moshahid Khan, M.; Kumar, P.; Kodidela, S.; Mirzahosseini, G.; Kumar, S.; Ishrat, T. HIV Associated Risk Factors for Ischemic Stroke and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5306. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155306

AMA Style

Ismael S, Moshahid Khan M, Kumar P, Kodidela S, Mirzahosseini G, Kumar S, Ishrat T. HIV Associated Risk Factors for Ischemic Stroke and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(15):5306. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismael, Saifudeen, Mohammad Moshahid Khan, Prashant Kumar, Sunitha Kodidela, Golnoush Mirzahosseini, Santhosh Kumar, and Tauheed Ishrat. 2020. "HIV Associated Risk Factors for Ischemic Stroke and Future Perspectives" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 15: 5306. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155306

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