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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020312

Fatty Acid Potassium Had Beneficial Bactericidal Effects and Removed Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms while Exhibiting Reduced Cytotoxicity towards Mouse Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes

1
Shabondama Soap Co., Ltd., Kitakyushu 808-0195, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu 807-0804, Japan
3
Biotechnology and Food Research Institute, Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center, Kurume 839-0861, Japan
4
Department of Life and Environment Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan
5
Department of Plastic Surgery, Wound Repair and Regeneration, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Innovations in Wound Healing and Repair)
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Abstract

Wounds frequently become infected or contaminated with bacteria. Potassium oleate (C18:1K), a type of fatty acid potassium, caused >4 log colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL reductions in the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli within 10 min and a >2 log CFU/mL reduction in the number of Clostridium difficile within 1 min. C18:1K (proportion removed: 90.3%) was significantly more effective at removing Staphylococcus aureus biofilms than the synthetic surfactant detergents sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) (74.8%, p < 0.01) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (78.0%, p < 0.05). In the WST (water-soluble tetrazolium) assay, mouse fibroblasts (BALB/3T3 clone A31) in C18:1K (relative viability vs. control: 102.8%) demonstrated a significantly higher viability than those in SLES (30.1%) or SLS (18.1%, p < 0.05). In a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay, C18:1K (relative leakage vs. control: 108.9%) was found to be associated with a significantly lower LDH leakage from mouse fibroblasts than SLES or SLS (720.6% and 523.4%, respectively; p < 0.05). Potassium oleate demonstrated bactericidal effects against various species including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium difficile; removed significantly greater amounts of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm material than SLES and SLS; and maintained fibroblast viability; therefore, it might be useful for wound cleaning and peri-wound skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acid potassium; biofilm; less cytotoxicity; bactericide; wound fatty acid potassium; biofilm; less cytotoxicity; bactericide; wound
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kawahara, T.; Takita, M.; Masunaga, A.; Morita, H.; Tsukatani, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Go, D.; Akita, S. Fatty Acid Potassium Had Beneficial Bactericidal Effects and Removed Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms while Exhibiting Reduced Cytotoxicity towards Mouse Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 312.

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