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Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Isoflavones from Pueraria (Kudzu) Flower Extract in Ovariectomised Mice: A Comparison with Soy Isoflavones

1
National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
2
Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition,1-2 Hachimandai Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0843, Japan
3
Tokyo University of Agriculture, NODAI Research Institute, 1-1-1, Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122867
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on the Health Benefits of Flavonoids)
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Abstract

Numerous Foods with Function Claims that contain the extract of Pueraria flower (kudzu) isoflavones (PFI) are available in the Japanese market. These are labelled with function claims of reducing visceral fat. However, these foods have not undergone proper safety assessment such as the evaluation of their oestrogenic activity and effects on drug-metabolising enzymes (cytochrome P-450: CYP) in the liver. This study evaluated the estrogenic effect and the hepatic CYP activity and mRNA expression in normal female mice as a safety assessment of PFI (Experiment 1). In addition, the bone mineral density and visceral fat weight in ovariectomised mice (OVX) compared to soy isoflavones (SI) was evaluated to assess the efficacy of PFI (Experiment 2). OVX control fed a control diet, OVX fed a PFI diet (the recommended human intake of PFI), OVX fed a PFI20 diet (20- times the recommended PFI), OVX fed an SI diet (the recommended human intake of SI), and OVX fed an SI20 diet (20 -times the recommended intake of SI) for 28 days in Experiment 2. Body, liver, and visceral fat weights were not affected by the PFI, PFI20, SI, or SI20 diets. The hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A activities were elevated by the SI20 treatment. Ovariectomy-induced bone loss was inhibited by the SI20 treatment, but not by the PFI20 treatment. These results suggest that (1) PFI intake in human doses had no oestrogenic properties and did not affect CYP activity in the liver; (2) there was no evidence that PFI affects the amount of visceral fat in OVX mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: isoflavones; Pueraria flower; oestrogenic effects; CYP; Cytochrome P-450; kudzu; tectorigenin isoflavones; Pueraria flower; oestrogenic effects; CYP; Cytochrome P-450; kudzu; tectorigenin
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Tousen, Y.; Takebayashi, J.; Kondo, T.; Fuchino, H.; Kawano, N.; Inui, T.; Yoshimatsu, K.; Kawahara, N.; Ishimi, Y. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Isoflavones from Pueraria (Kudzu) Flower Extract in Ovariectomised Mice: A Comparison with Soy Isoflavones. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2867.

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