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Article

Chemical and Pharmacological Profiling of Wrightia coccinea (Roxb. Ex Hornem.) Sims Focusing Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antidiarrheal, Hypoglycemic, and Analgesic Properties

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Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
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Department Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
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Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
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Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
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Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo (GUC), Cairo 11835, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ruhul Amin, Isa Naina Mohamed and Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4024; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134024
Received: 29 March 2022 / Revised: 17 June 2022 / Accepted: 19 June 2022 / Published: 22 June 2022
The aim of the study was to conduct phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Wrightia coccinea (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Sims via several in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models. A total of four compounds were identified and isolated from the methanol extract of the bark and the methanol extract of the seed pulp of W. coccinea through successive chromatographic techniques and were characterized as 3β-acetyloxy-olean-12-en-28-ol (1), wrightiadione (2), 22β-hydroxylupeol (3), and β-sitosterol (4) by spectroscopic analysis. The aqueous fraction of the bark and chloroform fraction of the fruits provided the most potent antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 7.22 and 4.5 µg/mL, respectively) in DPPH free radical scavenging assay compared with the standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 17.45 µg/mL). The methanol bark extract and the methanol fruit coat extract exerted anti-diarrheal activity by inhibiting 74.55 ± 0.67% and 77.78 ± 1.5% (mean ± SEM) of the diarrheal episode in mice, respectively, after four hours of loading the samples. In the hypoglycemic test, the methanol bark extract and the methanol fruit coat extract (400 mg/kg) produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the blood glucose level in mice. Both doses of the plant extracts (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) used in the study induced a significant (p < 0.05) increase in pain reaction time. The in vitro and in vivo findings were supported by the computational studies. The isolated compounds exhibited higher binding affinity compared with the standard drugs towards the active binding sites of glutathione reductase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), kappa opioid receptor, glucose transporter 3 (GLUT 3), Mu opioid receptor, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) proteins due to their potent antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-diarrheal, hypoglycemic, and central and peripheral analgesic properties, respectively. The current findings concluded that W. coccinea might be a potential natural source for managing oxidative stress, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, and pain. Further studies are warranted for extensively phytochemical screening and establishing exact mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wrightia coccinea; antioxidant; cytotoxic; anti-diarrheal; hypoglycemic; analgesic; molecular docking Wrightia coccinea; antioxidant; cytotoxic; anti-diarrheal; hypoglycemic; analgesic; molecular docking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jannat, T.; Hossain, M.J.; El-Shehawi, A.M.; Kuddus, M.R.; Rashid, M.A.; Albogami, S.; Jafri, I.; El-Shazly, M.; Haque, M.R. Chemical and Pharmacological Profiling of Wrightia coccinea (Roxb. Ex Hornem.) Sims Focusing Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antidiarrheal, Hypoglycemic, and Analgesic Properties. Molecules 2022, 27, 4024. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134024

AMA Style

Jannat T, Hossain MJ, El-Shehawi AM, Kuddus MR, Rashid MA, Albogami S, Jafri I, El-Shazly M, Haque MR. Chemical and Pharmacological Profiling of Wrightia coccinea (Roxb. Ex Hornem.) Sims Focusing Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antidiarrheal, Hypoglycemic, and Analgesic Properties. Molecules. 2022; 27(13):4024. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jannat, Tabassum, Md. Jamal Hossain, Ahmed M. El-Shehawi, Md. Ruhul Kuddus, Mohammad A. Rashid, Sarah Albogami, Ibrahim Jafri, Mohamed El-Shazly, and Mohammad Rashedul Haque. 2022. "Chemical and Pharmacological Profiling of Wrightia coccinea (Roxb. Ex Hornem.) Sims Focusing Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antidiarrheal, Hypoglycemic, and Analgesic Properties" Molecules 27, no. 13: 4024. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134024

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