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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Lignosulfonate Microcapsules for Delivery and Controlled Release of Thymol and Derivatives

1
Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples ‘Federico II’, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, University of Venice Ca’ Foscari, Via Torino 155, 30170 Venice Mestre, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Also affiliated with a) via NAST – Nanoscience & Nanotechnology & Innovative Instrumentation Center.
Academic Editor: Maria Filomena Barreiro
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040866
Received: 22 January 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 16 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin—Chemistry and Materials: Past, Present and Future)
Thymol and the corresponding brominated derivatives constitute important biological active molecules as antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. However, their application is often limited, because their pronounced fragrance, their poor solubility in water, and their high volatility. The encapsulation of different thymol derivatives into biocompatible lignin-microcapsules is presented as a synergy-delivering remedy. The adoption of lignosulfonate as an encapsulating material possessing relevant antioxidant activity, as well as general biocompatibility allows for the development of new materials that are suitable for the application in various fields, especially cosmesis. To this purpose, lignin microcapsules containing thymol, 4-bromothymol, 2,4-dibromothymol, and the corresponding O-methylated derivatives have been efficiently prepared through a sustainable ultrasonication procedure. Actives could be efficiently encapsulated with efficiencies of up to 50%. To evaluate the applicability of such systems for topical purposes, controlled release experiments have been performed in acetate buffer at pH 5.4, to simulate skin pH: all of the capsules show a slow release of actives, which is strongly determined by their inherent lipophilicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignosulfonate; thymol; microcapsules; ultra-sonication; encapsulation efficiency; release kinetics lignosulfonate; thymol; microcapsules; ultra-sonication; encapsulation efficiency; release kinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piombino, C.; Lange, H.; Sabuzi, F.; Galloni, P.; Conte, V.; Crestini, C. Lignosulfonate Microcapsules for Delivery and Controlled Release of Thymol and Derivatives. Molecules 2020, 25, 866. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040866

AMA Style

Piombino C, Lange H, Sabuzi F, Galloni P, Conte V, Crestini C. Lignosulfonate Microcapsules for Delivery and Controlled Release of Thymol and Derivatives. Molecules. 2020; 25(4):866. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040866

Chicago/Turabian Style

Piombino, Claudio; Lange, Heiko; Sabuzi, Federica; Galloni, Pierluca; Conte, Valeria; Crestini, Claudia. 2020. "Lignosulfonate Microcapsules for Delivery and Controlled Release of Thymol and Derivatives" Molecules 25, no. 4: 866. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040866

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