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Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Antiproliferative Effects of Salvia pomifera and Salvia fruticosa Extracts

1
Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, 83232 Bratislava 3, Slovak Republic
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Building A16, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Building A6, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162921
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Abstract

The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts of Salvia pomifera and Salvia fruticosa were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Carnosic acid and its metabolite carnosol were the most abundant terpene phenolic compounds of S. fruticosa, while they were completely absent in S. pomifera. The main terpene phenolic constituent of S. pomifera was 12-O-methylcarnosic acid and its mass/mass fragmentation pathway was explained. The detailed mechanism of carnosic acid oxidation to carnosol was suggested. The effects of Salvia extracts and/or carnosic acid, the main diterpene phenolic component of S. fruticosa, on the proliferation and cell cycle of two melanoma cell lines (A375, Mel JuSo) and human fibroblast cell line (HFF) were investigated by MTT assay, PI-exclusion assay and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. Extract of S. fruticosa more efficiently than S. pomifera extract reduced the proliferation of the human melanoma cells. Carnosic acid showed the most significant effect. The first evidence that carnosic acid affects microtubule dynamics and arrests the cell cycle in the G2/M phase was provided. Collectively, our results demonstrate that these two Salvia species are plants of medicinal interest with perspective for further investigation. Carnosic acid could be the compound responsible for the biological activities of S. fruticosa extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: 12-O-methylcarnosic acid; cancer; carnosic acid; cytotoxicity; cell cycle; melanoma; microtubules; LC-MS; Salvia fruticosa; Salvia pomifera 12-O-methylcarnosic acid; cancer; carnosic acid; cytotoxicity; cell cycle; melanoma; microtubules; LC-MS; Salvia fruticosa; Salvia pomifera
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Koutsoulas, A.; Čarnecká, M.; Slanina, J.; Tóth, J.; Slaninová, I. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Antiproliferative Effects of Salvia pomifera and Salvia fruticosa Extracts. Molecules 2019, 24, 2921.

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