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Open AccessArticle

A Strategy for Quality Control of Vespa magnifica (Smith) Venom Based on HPLC Fingerprint Analysis and Multi-Component Separation Combined with Quantitative Analysis

1
Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Entomological Biopharmaceutical R&D, the National–Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Entomoceutics, Dali University, Dali 671000, China
2
Yunnan Provincial 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center for Entomoceutics, Dali University, Dali 671000, China
3
Innovation Team of New Preparation for Entomological Biopharmaceutical R&D, Dali University, Dali 671000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162920
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

As a folk medicine of the Jingpo minority in Yunnan province, the venom of Vespa magnifica has been commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Quality standardization of the wasp venom is a necessary step for its pharmaceutical research and development. To control the quality of the wasp venom, a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for chemical fingerprint analysis. In the chromatographic fingerprinting, chemometrics procedures, including similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA), were applied to classify 134 batches (S1–S134) of wasp venom from different origins. The HPLC fingerprint method displayed good precision (Relative standard deviation, RSD < 0.27%), stability (in 16 h, RSD < 0.34%), and repeatability (RSD < 1.00%). Simultaneously, four compounds (VMS1, VMS2, VMS3, and VMS4) in the wasp venom were purified and identified. VMS1 was 5-hydroxytryptamine, and the other compounds were three peptides that were sequenced as follows: Gly–Arg–Pro–Hyp–Gly–Phe–Ser–Pro–Phe–Arg–Ile–Asp–NH2 (VMS2), Ile–Asn–Leu–Lys–Ala–Ile–Ala–Ala–Leu–Ala–Lys–Lys–Leu–Leu–NH2 (VMS3), and Phe–Leu–Pro–Ile–Ile–Gly–Lys–Leu–Leu–Ser–Gly–Leu–Leu–NH2 (VMS4). The quantifications for these components were 110.2 mg/g, 26.9 mg/g, 216.3 mg/g, and 58.0 mg/g, respectively. The results of this work indicated that the combination of the chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis offers a reasonable way to evaluate the quality of wasp venom. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vespa magnifica (Smith); wasp venom; HPLC fingerprint; similarity analysis; hierarchical clustering analysis; principal component analysis; identification Vespa magnifica (Smith); wasp venom; HPLC fingerprint; similarity analysis; hierarchical clustering analysis; principal component analysis; identification
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Zhou, S.-T.; Luan, K.; Ni, L.-L.; Wang, Y.; Yuan, S.-M.; Che, Y.-H.; Yang, Z.-Z.; Zhang, C.-G.; Yang, Z.-B. A Strategy for Quality Control of Vespa magnifica (Smith) Venom Based on HPLC Fingerprint Analysis and Multi-Component Separation Combined with Quantitative Analysis. Molecules 2019, 24, 2920.

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