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Lipidomic Profiling of the Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruit towards Its Valorisation as a Functional Food: In-Depth Identification of Triacylglycerols and Polar Lipids in Portuguese Olives

1
Mass Spectrometry Centre, Department of Chemistry & QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Department of Chemistry & CESAM & ECOMARE, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Cooperativa de Olivicultores de Nelas, C.R.L., Zona Industrial de Nelas, 3520-095 Nelas, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142555
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Bioactives: From Molecules to Human Health)
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Abstract

Olives (Olea europaea L.) are classic ingredients in the Mediterranean diet with well-known health benefits, but their lipid composition has not been fully addressed. In this work, we characterised triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles of the olive pulp while using a complementary methodological approach that was based on solid-phase extraction to recover the neutral lipid (NL) and the polar lipid-rich fractions. The TAG profile was analysed in the NL-fraction by C30 reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) and the polar lipid profile by normal-phase hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), with both being coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ESI-MS/MS. This approach identified 71 TAG ions that were attributed to more than 350 molecular species, with fatty acyl chain lengths from C11:0 to C26:0, including different polyunsaturated acyl chains. The polar lipids included 107 molecular species that belonged to 11 lipid classes that comprised phospholipids, glyceroglycolipids, glycosphingolipids, and betaine lipids. In addition to polyunsaturated fatty acids, some of the phospholipids, glycolipids, and glycosphingolipids that were identified in the olive pulp have been described as biologically active molecules. Lipidomic phenotyping of the olive pulp has led to the discovery of compounds that will allow for a better assessment of its nutritional value and new applications of bioactive lipid components in this functional food. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass spectrometry; lipidomics; glycolipid; glycosphingolipid; phospholipid; sphingomyelin; betaine; polyunsaturated fatty acid; hydroxy fatty acid; HPLC-MS/MS mass spectrometry; lipidomics; glycolipid; glycosphingolipid; phospholipid; sphingomyelin; betaine; polyunsaturated fatty acid; hydroxy fatty acid; HPLC-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Alves, E.; Melo, T.; Barros, M.P.; Domingues, M.R.M.; Domingues, P. Lipidomic Profiling of the Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruit towards Its Valorisation as a Functional Food: In-Depth Identification of Triacylglycerols and Polar Lipids in Portuguese Olives. Molecules 2019, 24, 2555.

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