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Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Poly(vinyl chloride) Films Containing Naproxen Diorganotin(IV) Complexes

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Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Babylon University, Babil 51002, Iraq
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Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad 64021, Iraq
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Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Medical Instrumentation Engineering, Al-Mansour University College, Baghdad 64021, Iraq
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National Center for Petrochemicals Technology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad 64021, Iraq
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132396
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
As poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) photodegrades with long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation, it is desirable to develop methods that enhance the photostability of PVC. In this study, new aromatic-rich diorganotin(IV) complexes were tested as photostabilizers in PVC films. The diorganotin(IV) complexes were synthesized in 79–86% yields by reacting excess naproxen with tin(IV) chlorides. PVC films containing 0.5 wt % diorganotin(IV) complexes were irradiated with ultraviolet light for up to 300 h, and changes within the films were monitored using the weight loss and the formation of specific functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl, and polyene). In addition, changes in the surface morphologies of the films were investigated. The diorganotin(IV) complexes enhanced the photostability of PVC, as the weight loss and surface roughness were much lower in the films with additives than in the blank film. Notably, the dimethyltin(IV) complex was the most efficient photostabilizer. The polymeric film containing this complex exhibited a morphology of regularly distributed hexagonal pores, with a honeycomb-like structure—possibly due to cross-linking and interactions between the additive and the polymeric chains. Various mechanisms, including direct absorption of ultraviolet irradiation, radical or hydrogen chloride scavenging, and polymer chain coordination, could explain how the diorganotin(IV) complexes stabilize PVC against photodegradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: naproxen; poly(vinyl chloride) films; diorganotin(IV) complexes; photodegradation; photostabilizer; synthesis naproxen; poly(vinyl chloride) films; diorganotin(IV) complexes; photodegradation; photostabilizer; synthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hadi, A.G.; Yousif, E.; El-Hiti, G.A.; Ahmed, D.S.; Jawad, K.; Alotaibi, M.H.; Hashim, H. Long-Term Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Poly(vinyl chloride) Films Containing Naproxen Diorganotin(IV) Complexes. Molecules 2019, 24, 2396. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132396

AMA Style

Hadi AG, Yousif E, El-Hiti GA, Ahmed DS, Jawad K, Alotaibi MH, Hashim H. Long-Term Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Poly(vinyl chloride) Films Containing Naproxen Diorganotin(IV) Complexes. Molecules. 2019; 24(13):2396. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hadi, Angham G.; Yousif, Emad; El-Hiti, Gamal A.; Ahmed, Dina S.; Jawad, Khudheyer; Alotaibi, Mohammad H.; Hashim, Hassan. 2019. "Long-Term Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Poly(vinyl chloride) Films Containing Naproxen Diorganotin(IV) Complexes" Molecules 24, no. 13: 2396. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132396

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