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Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolics from Citrus aurantium L. Blossoms and Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging, Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase Activities

1
College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600, China
2
Key Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioresources Utilization, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116600, China
3
School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
4
College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132368
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
The objective of this study was to develop an ultrasonic-assisted procedure for the extraction of total phenolics from Citrus aurantium L. blossoms (CAB) and evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity of the total phenolics. In this work, a Box– Behnken design based on single-factor experiments was used to explore the optimum extraction process. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent 70.31% ethanol, extraction temperature 61.94 °C, extraction time 51.73 min, and liquid-to-solid ratio 35.63 mL/g), the extraction yield of total phenolics was 95.84 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry matter (DM), which was highly consistent with the theoretical value (96.12 mg GAE/g DM). The higher contents of total phenolics and five main phenolic compounds obtained from the optimized ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) proved its efficiency when compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE). The total phenolic extract showed excellent free radical scavenging properties against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·), 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical (ABTS+·), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and superoxide anion radical (·O2), with IC50 values of 197.007, 83.878, 218.643, and 158.885 μg/mL, respectively; the extracts also showed good inhibition of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) activity, with an IC50 value of 117.165 μg/mL. Total phenolics from CAB could be a potential source of natural free radical scavenger and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus aurantium L. blossoms; total phenolics; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; Box–Behnken design; free radical scavenging activity; anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity Citrus aurantium L. blossoms; total phenolics; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; Box–Behnken design; free radical scavenging activity; anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hao, K.; Hu, W.; Hou, M.; Cao, D.; Wang, Y.; Guan, Q.; Zhang, X.; Wang, A.; Yu, J.; Guo, B. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolics from Citrus aurantium L. Blossoms and Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging, Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase Activities. Molecules 2019, 24, 2368.

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