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Correction published on 6 November 2019, see Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4017.
Open AccessArticle

Metabolic Profiling of Water-Soluble Compounds from the Extracts of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi (DSE) Isolated from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Seedlings Using UPLC–Orbitrap–MS

1
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Tampere University, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
2
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland
3
Natural Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
5
School of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122330
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
Endophytes are microorganisms living inside plant hosts and are known to be beneficial for the host plant vitality. In this study, we isolated three endophytic fungus species from the roots of Scots pine seedlings growing on Finnish drained peatland setting. The isolated fungi belonged to dark septate endophytes (DSE). The metabolic profiles of the hot water extracts of the fungi were investigated using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection and Electron Spray Ionization source Mass Spectrometry with Orbitrap analyzer (UPLC–DAD–ESI–MS–Orbitrap). Out of 318 metabolites, we were able to identify 220, of which a majority was amino acids and peptides. Additionally, opine amino acids, amino acid quinones, Amadori compounds, cholines, nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, siderophores, sugars, sugar alcohols and disaccharides were found, as well as other previously reported metabolites from plants or endophytes. Some differences of the metabolic profiles, regarding the amount and identity of the found metabolites, were observed even though the fungi were isolated from the same host. Many of the discovered metabolites have been described possessing biological activities and properties, which may make a favorable contribution to the host plant nutrient availability or abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. View Full-Text
Keywords: endophytes; endophytic fungi; Acephala applanata; Phialocephala fortinii; Humicolopsis cephalosporioides; Coniochaeta mutabilis; Scots pine; metabolites; UPLC–MS; peptides endophytes; endophytic fungi; Acephala applanata; Phialocephala fortinii; Humicolopsis cephalosporioides; Coniochaeta mutabilis; Scots pine; metabolites; UPLC–MS; peptides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tienaho, J.; Karonen, M.; Muilu–Mäkelä, R.; Wähälä, K.; Leon Denegri, E.; Franzén, R.; Karp, M.; Santala, V.; Sarjala, T. Metabolic Profiling of Water-Soluble Compounds from the Extracts of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi (DSE) Isolated from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Seedlings Using UPLC–Orbitrap–MS. Molecules 2019, 24, 2330.

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