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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja Red Wines: Characterization of Their Phenolic Composition and Evolution from 2000 to 2013

1
University Bordeaux, ISVV, EA 4577 Œnologie, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2
INRA, ISVV, USC 1366 Œnologie, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
3
Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020192
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 31 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areas—the Aquitaine (France) and Rioja (Spain) regions—in order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface). Mean degree of polymerization (mDP) was determined. The influence of the wine-growing region and the predominance of the properties of some grape varieties used are confirmed by the significant differences observed between both regions. Rioja and Bordeaux “generic” (Bordeaux and Bordeaux-Supérieur appellations) red wines showed the highest anthocyanic content and the highest mDP, as these wines are in a majority made from Merlot (Bordeaux “generic”) and Tempranillo (Rioja). On the contrary, Bordeaux “specific” regions (Blayais, Médoc, Graves, and Libournais) showed the red wines with the highest total phenolic content and tannin concentration, as the predominant grape variety used is Cabernet Sauvignon. A principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) suggesting patterns between the chemical parameters and the distribution of the red wines in three groups were proposed. The comparison of the two wine-growing areas also reveals some similarities between the various grape varieties used. A general effect of a progressive decrease in anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derived pigment and tannins is observed for older wines. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine composition; pigments; tannins; anthocyanins; pyranoanthocyanins; HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS; component levels; Rioja; Aquitaine wine composition; pigments; tannins; anthocyanins; pyranoanthocyanins; HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS; component levels; Rioja; Aquitaine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Quaglieri, C.; Prieto-Perea, N.; Berrueta, L.A.; Gallo, B.; Rasines-Perea, Z.; Jourdes, M.; Teissedre, P.-L. Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja Red Wines: Characterization of Their Phenolic Composition and Evolution from 2000 to 2013. Molecules 2017, 22, 192.

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