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Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Energetic Particle Flux Enhancements Caused by the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection-Heliospheric Current Sheet Interaction

1
IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli, Greece
2
Research Team of Chaos and Complexity, Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
3
Heliophysical Laboratory, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow 108840, Russia
4
Department of Electrical Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
5
Space Science & Engineering, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(7), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21070648
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theoretical Aspects of Kappa Distributions)
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Abstract

In this study we use theoretical concepts and computational-diagnostic tools of Tsallis non-extensive statistical theory (Tsallis q-triplet: q s e n ,   q r e l ,   q s t a t ), complemented by other known tools of nonlinear dynamics such as Correlation Dimension and surrogate data, Hurst exponent, Flatness coefficient, and p-modeling of multifractality, in order to describe and understand Small-scale Magnetic Islands (SMIs) structures observed in Solar Wind (SW) with a typical size of ~0.01–0.001 AU at 1 AU. Specifically, we analyze ~0.5 MeV energetic ion time-intensity and magnetic field profiles observed by the STEREO A spacecraft during a rare, widely discussed event. Our analysis clearly reveals the non-extensive character of SW space plasmas during the periods of SMIs events, as well as significant physical complex phenomena in accordance with nonlinear dynamics and complexity theory. As our analysis also shows, a non-equilibrium phase transition parallel with self-organization processes, including the reduction of dimensionality and development of long-range correlations in connection with anomalous diffusion and fractional acceleration processes can be observed during SMIs events. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar wind; energetic particles; magnetic islands; non-extensive statistics; non-Gaussian dynamics; Tsallis q-triplet solar wind; energetic particles; magnetic islands; non-extensive statistics; non-Gaussian dynamics; Tsallis q-triplet
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavlos, E.G.; Malandraki, O.E.; Khabarova, O.V.; Karakatsanis, L.P.; Pavlos, G.P.; Livadiotis, G. Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Energetic Particle Flux Enhancements Caused by the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection-Heliospheric Current Sheet Interaction. Entropy 2019, 21, 648.

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