Topic Editors

Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrology, Anaesthesiology and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
1. Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università Degli Studi Di Milano, Via Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milan, Italy
2. Unit of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Italy

Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art

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closed (30 April 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The goal of cardiac imaging today is to represent the global vision of the integration of different cardiovascular imaging methods for the study and interpretation of cardiac pathologies. This Topic is therefore aimed at showing the use of different cardiac imaging methods in clinical practice. In recent decades, cardiac MRI and cardiac CT in particular have found a lot of applications in clinical and scientific research. Papers that contemplate the combination of multiple different cardiac imaging methods simultaneously, such as echocardiogram, cardio TC, cardiac MRI, and myocardial scintigraphy, will be prioritized. Clinical settings can be different, as the use of various imaging methods in ischemic heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, as well as in congenital heart disease is now widely integrated.

Dr. Camilla Calvieri
Dr. Nicola Galea
Dr. Francesco Secchi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)
  • ischemic heart disease
  • stress CMR
  • ultrasound
  • computed tomography (CT)
  • nuclear medicine (NM)
  • positron emission tomography (PET)
  • single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • echocardiography

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.0 4.7 2011 20.5 Days CHF 2600
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
jcdd
2.4 2.6 2014 22.9 Days CHF 2700
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.0 5.7 2012 17.3 Days CHF 2600
Medicina
medicina
2.4 3.3 1920 17.8 Days CHF 2200
Tomography
tomography
2.2 2.7 2015 23.9 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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14 pages, 636 KiB  
Review
Multimodal Imaging of Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction in Breast Cancer—A State-of-the-Art Review
by Michael Cronin, Mehreen Seher, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Aoife Lowery, Michael Kerin, William Wijns and Osama Soliman
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196295 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Background: This review focuses on multimodality imaging of cardiotoxicity in cancer patients, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different techniques in detecting and monitoring cardiac changes associated with cancer therapy. Methods: Eight studies were included in the review, covering various imaging [...] Read more.
Background: This review focuses on multimodality imaging of cardiotoxicity in cancer patients, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different techniques in detecting and monitoring cardiac changes associated with cancer therapy. Methods: Eight studies were included in the review, covering various imaging modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and multigated acquisition scanning. Results: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging emerged as the most definitive modality, offering real-time detection, comprehensive assessment of cardiac function, the ability to detect early myocardial changes, and superior detection of cardiotoxicity when compared to the other imaging modalities. The studies also emphasize the importance of parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain in assessing cardiac function and predicting cardiotoxicity. Conclusion: Due to the common use of HER2 agents and anthracyclines within the breast cancer population, the LVEF as a critical prognostic measurement for assessing heart health and estimating the severity of left-sided cardiac malfunction is a commonly used endpoint. CTRCD rates differed between imaging modalities, with cardiac MRI the most sensitive. The use of multimodal cardiac imaging remains a nuanced area, influenced by local availability, the clinical question at hand, body habits, and medical comorbidities. All of the imaging modalities listed have a role to play in current care; however, focus should be given to increasing the provision of cardiac MRI for breast cancer patients in the future to optimize the detection of CTRCD and patient outcomes thereafter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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11 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Prognostic Value of Automated Measurements in Nuclear Cardiology: Comparisons with Expert Scoring
by George Angelidis, Stavroula Giannakou, Varvara Valotassiou, Ioannis Tsougos, Chara Tzavara, Dimitrios Psimadas, Evdoxia Theodorou, Anastasia Ziaka, Charalampos Ziangas, John Skoularigis, Filippos Triposkiadis and Panagiotis Georgoulias
Medicina 2023, 59(10), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59101738 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Automated methods for the analysis of myocardial perfusion studies have been incorporated into clinical practice, but they are currently used as adjuncts to the visual interpretation. We aimed to investigate the role of automated measurements of summed stress score [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Automated methods for the analysis of myocardial perfusion studies have been incorporated into clinical practice, but they are currently used as adjuncts to the visual interpretation. We aimed to investigate the role of automated measurements of summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) as long-term prognostic markers of morbidity and mortality, in comparison to the prognostic value of expert reading. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Nuclear Medicine Laboratory of the University of Thessaly, in Larissa, Greece. A total of 378 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were enrolled in the study. All participants were referred to our laboratory for the performance of stress/rest myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography. Automated measurements of SSS, SRS, and SDS were obtained by Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECTb (Version 3.0), Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA), Myovation (MYO, Xeleris version 3.05, GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA), and Quantitative Perfusion SPECT (QPS (Version 4.0), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA) software packages. Follow-up data were recorded after phone contacts, as well as through review of hospital records. Results: Expert scoring of SSS and SDS had significantly greater prognostic ability in comparison to all software packages (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Similarly, ECTb-obtained SRS measurements had significantly lower prognostic ability in comparison to expert scoring (p < 0.001), while expert scoring of SRS showed significantly higher prognostic ability compared to MYO (p = 0.018) and QPS (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the useful contribution of automated analyses in the interpretation of myocardial perfusion studies, expert reading should continue to have a crucial role, not only in clinical decision making, but also in the assessment of prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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17 pages, 1378 KiB  
Review
Non-Calcified Coronary Artery Plaque on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiogram: Prevalence and Significance
by Bandar Alyami, Matthew Santer, Karthik Seetharam, Dhivya Velu, Eswar Gadde, Bansari Patel and Yasmin S. Hamirani
Tomography 2023, 9(5), 1755-1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9050140 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
Objective: We aimed to assess the prevalence of non-calcified plaque (NCP) on computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. In addition, we seek to compare plaque assessment on CCTA with intravascular ultrasound–virtual histology (IVUS-VH) and to assess the prognostic value of [...] Read more.
Objective: We aimed to assess the prevalence of non-calcified plaque (NCP) on computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. In addition, we seek to compare plaque assessment on CCTA with intravascular ultrasound–virtual histology (IVUS-VH) and to assess the prognostic value of non-calcified plaques (NCPs). Background: The CCTA can characterize coronary plaques and help quantify burden. Furthermore, it can provide additional prognostic information which can enable further risk stratification of patients. Methods: We performed a broad comprehensive review of the current literature pertaining to CCTA and primarily isolated NCP in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. In addition, our review included studies correlating plaque on CT with IVUS-VH. Conclusions: NCP is the initial precursor of calcified plaque and serves as a prominent marker of early coronary atherosclerosis. By detecting NCP during early stages, several measures can be implemented which can alter the evolutionary course of the underlying disease. This can potentially lead to a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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19 pages, 2919 KiB  
Review
Role of Cardiovascular Imaging in Risk Assessment: Recent Advances, Gaps in Evidence, and Future Directions
by Francesco Perone, Marco Bernardi, Alban Redheuil, Dario Mafrica, Edoardo Conte, Luigi Spadafora, Fiona Ecarnot, Lale Tokgozoglu, Carlos G. Santos-Gallego, Sergio Emanuel Kaiser, Federica Fogacci, Annabelle Sabouret, Deepak L. Bhatt, Francesco Paneni, Maciej Banach, Raul Santos, Giuseppe Biondi Zoccai, Kausik K. Ray and Pierre Sabouret
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(17), 5563; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12175563 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4383
Abstract
Optimal risk assessment for primary prevention remains highly challenging. Recent registries have highlighted major discrepancies between guidelines and daily practice. Although guidelines have improved over time and provide updated risk scores, they still fail to identify a significant proportion of at-risk individuals, who [...] Read more.
Optimal risk assessment for primary prevention remains highly challenging. Recent registries have highlighted major discrepancies between guidelines and daily practice. Although guidelines have improved over time and provide updated risk scores, they still fail to identify a significant proportion of at-risk individuals, who then miss out on effective prevention measures until their initial ischemic events. Cardiovascular imaging is progressively assuming an increasingly pivotal role, playing a crucial part in enhancing the meticulous categorization of individuals according to their risk profiles, thus enabling the customization of precise therapeutic strategies for patients with increased cardiovascular risks. For the most part, the current approach to patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is homogeneous. However, data from registries (e.g., REACH, CORONOR) and randomized clinical trials (e.g., COMPASS, FOURIER, and ODYSSEY outcomes) highlight heterogeneity in the risks of recurrent ischemic events, which are especially higher in patients with poly-vascular disease and/or multivessel coronary disease. This indicates the need for a more individualized strategy and further research to improve definitions of individual residual risk, with a view of intensifying treatments in the subgroups with very high residual risk. In this narrative review, we discuss advances in cardiovascular imaging, its current place in the guidelines, the gaps in evidence, and perspectives for primary and secondary prevention to improve risk assessment and therapeutic strategies using cardiovascular imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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15 pages, 303 KiB  
Review
Assessment of the Graft Quality and Patency during and after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
by Matiullah Masroor, Ashfaq Ahmad, Yixuan Wang and Nianguo Dong
Diagnostics 2023, 13(11), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13111891 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2246
Abstract
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the gold standard procedure for multi vessels and left main coronary artery disease. The prognosis and survival outcomes of CABG surgery are highly dependent on the patency of the bypass graft. Early graft failure which can occur [...] Read more.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the gold standard procedure for multi vessels and left main coronary artery disease. The prognosis and survival outcomes of CABG surgery are highly dependent on the patency of the bypass graft. Early graft failure which can occur during or soon after CABG remains a significant issue, with reported incidences of 3–10%. Graft failure can lead to refractory angina, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, low cardiac output, and fatal cardiac failure, emphasizing the importance of ensuring graft patency during and after surgery to prevent such complications. Technical errors during anastomosis are among the leading causes of early graft failure. To address this issue, various modalities and techniques have been developed to evaluate graft patency during and after CABG surgery. These modalities aim to assess the quality and integrity of the graft, thus enabling surgeons to identify and address any issues before they lead to significant complications. In this review article, we aim to discuss the strengths and limitations of all available techniques and modalities, with the goal to identify the best modality for evaluating graft patency during and after CABG surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
12 pages, 2482 KiB  
Article
Application of Magnetic Resonance Strain Analysis Using Feature Tracking in a Myocardial Infarction Model
by Ryutaro Onishi, Junpei Ueda, Seiko Ide, Masahiro Koseki, Yasushi Sakata and Shigeyoshi Saito
Tomography 2023, 9(2), 871-882; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9020071 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
This study validates the usefulness of myocardial strain analysis with cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by evaluating the changes in the cardiac function and myocardial strain values longitudinally in a myocardial disease model. Six eight-week-old male Wistar rats were used as a [...] Read more.
This study validates the usefulness of myocardial strain analysis with cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by evaluating the changes in the cardiac function and myocardial strain values longitudinally in a myocardial disease model. Six eight-week-old male Wistar rats were used as a model of myocardial infarction (MI). Cine images were taken in the short axis, two-chamber view longitudinal axis, and four-chamber view longitudinal axis directions in rats 3 and 9 days after MI and in control rats, with preclinical 7-T MRI. The control images and the images on days 3 and 9 were evaluated by measuring the ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and the strain values in the circumferential (CS), radial (RS), and longitudinal directions (LS). The CS decreased significantly 3 days after MI, but there was no difference between the images on days 3 and 9. The two-chamber view LS was −9.7 ± 2.1% at 3 days and −13.9 ± 1.4% at 9 days after MI. The four-chamber view LS was −9.9 ± 1.5% at 3 days and −11.9 ± 1.3% at 9 days after MI. Both the two- and four-chamber LS values were significantly decreased 3 days after MI. Myocardial strain analysis is, therefore, useful for assessing the pathophysiology of MI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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15 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
Papillary Muscle Involvement during Acute Myocardial Infarction: Detection by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Using T1 Mapping Technique and Papillary Longitudinal Strain
by Giacomo Pambianchi, Martina Giannetti, Livia Marchitelli, Giulia Cundari, Viviana Maestrini, Massimo Mancone, Marco Francone, Carlo Catalano and Nicola Galea
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(4), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041497 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Papillary muscle (PPM) involvement in myocardial infarction (MI) increases the risk of secondary mitral valve regurgitation or PPM rupture and may be diagnosed using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. The native T1-mapping (nT1) technique and PPM longitudinal strain (PPM-ls) have been used to [...] Read more.
Papillary muscle (PPM) involvement in myocardial infarction (MI) increases the risk of secondary mitral valve regurgitation or PPM rupture and may be diagnosed using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. The native T1-mapping (nT1) technique and PPM longitudinal strain (PPM-ls) have been used to identify PPM infarction (iPPM) without the use of the contrast agent. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of nT1 and PPM-ls in the identification of iPPM. Forty-six patients, who performed CMR within 14–30 days after MI, were retrospectively enrolled: sixteen showed signs of iPPM on LGE images. nT1 values were measured within the infarcted area (IA), remote myocardium (RM), blood pool (BP), and anterolateral and posteromedial PPMs and compared using ANOVA. PPM-ls values have been assessed on cineMR images as the percentage of shortening between end-diastolic and end-systolic phases. Higher nT1 values and lower PPM-ls were found in infarcted compared to non-infarcted PPMs (nT1: 1219.3 ± 102.5 ms vs. 1052.2 ± 80.5 ms and 17.6 ± 6.3% vs. 21.6 ± 4.3%; p-value < 0.001 for both), with no significant differences between the nT1 of infarcted PPMs and IA and between the non-infarcted PPMs and RM. ROC analysis demonstrated an excellent discriminatory power for nT1 in detecting the iPPM (AUC = 0.874; 95% CI: 0.784–0.963; p < 0.001). nT1 and PPM-ls are valid tools in assessing iPPM with the advantage of avoiding contrast media administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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10 pages, 2066 KiB  
Article
Acute Modification of Hemodynamic Forces in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
by Alessandro Vairo, Lorenzo Zaccaro, Andrea Ballatore, Lorenzo Airale, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Gianluca Alunni, Federico Conrotto, Luca Scudeler, Daniela Mascaretti, Davide Miccoli, Michele La Torre, Mauro Rinaldi, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Stefano Salizzoni and Gaetano Maria De Ferrari
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12031218 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the established first-line treatment for patient with severe aortic stenosis not suitable for surgery. Echocardiographic evaluation of hemodynamic forces (HDFs) is a growing field, holding the potential to early predict improvement in LV function. A prospective observational [...] Read more.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the established first-line treatment for patient with severe aortic stenosis not suitable for surgery. Echocardiographic evaluation of hemodynamic forces (HDFs) is a growing field, holding the potential to early predict improvement in LV function. A prospective observational study was conducted. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before and after TAVI. HDFs were analyzed along with traditional left ventricular (LV) function parameters. Twenty-five consecutive patients undergoing TAVI were enrolled: mean age 83 ± 5 years, 74.5% male, mean LV Ejection Fraction (LVEF) at baseline 57 ± 8%. Post-TAVI echocardiographic evaluation was performed 2.4 ± 1.06 days after the procedure. HDF amplitude parameters improved significantly after the procedure: LV Longitudinal Forces (LF) apex-base [mean difference (MD) 1.79%; 95% CI 1.07–2.5; p-value < 0.001]; LV systolic LF apex-base (MD 2.6%; 95% CI 1.57–3.7; p-value < 0.001); LV impulse (LVim) apex-base (MD 2.9%; 95% CI 1.48–4.3; p-value < 0.001). Similarly, HDFs orientation parameters improved: LVLF angle (MD 1.5°; 95% CI 0.07–2.9; p-value = 0.041); LVim angle (MD 2.16°; 95% CI 0.76–3.56; p-value = 0.004). Conversely, global longitudinal strain and LVEF did not show any significant difference before and after the procedure. Echocardiographic analysis of HDFs could help differentiate patients with LV function recovery after TAVI from patients with persistent hemodynamic dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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10 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Radiation Dose Assessment for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: A Single Institution Survey
by Essam Alkhybari, Salman Albeshan, Bandar Alanazi, Raghad Alfarraj, Rakan Alduhaim, Intidhar El Bez Chanem and Rima Tulbah
Tomography 2023, 9(1), 264-273; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9010021 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Objective: This study aims to establish a local diagnostic reference level (LDRL) for single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) with respect to myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Materials and Methods: The acquisition protocol and dosimetry data on the MPI procedures [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aims to establish a local diagnostic reference level (LDRL) for single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) with respect to myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Materials and Methods: The acquisition protocol and dosimetry data on the MPI procedures of five SPECT/CT scans and one PET/CT scan were collected. Data on technitum-99m sestamibi (99mTc-sestamibi), 99mTc-tetrofosmin, thallium-201 (201Tl), and rubidium-82 (82RB) were all collected from one centre via questionnaire booklets. Descriptive data analysis was used to analyse all variables, and the 50th percentile was used to analyse each radiation dose quantity. Results: The reported 50th percentile dose for a one-day stress/rest protocol using 99mTc-sestamibi (445/1147 MBq) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (445/1147 MBq) and for a two-day stress/rest protocol using 99mTc-sestamibi (1165/1184 MBq) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (1221/1184 MBq) are in good agreement with reported national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs). However, the dose from the study data on a one-day stress/rest protocol using 99mTc-sestamibi was more than the 50th percentile dose from the Brazilian data (370/1110 MBq) on a similar protocol, and the dose from the study data on a two-day stress/rest protocol using 99mTc-tetrofosmin was more than the 50th percentile dose (1084/1110 MBq) from the United States data on MPI scans. Regarding the computed tomography (CT) portion of the SPECT/CT framework, the 50th percentile doses were lower than all the identified doses in the data considered in the literature reviewed. However, regarding the CT component of the PET/CT MPI scans, the 82RB dose was more than the recorded doses in the CT data in the published literature. Conclusion: This study determined the LDRL of five SPECT/CT protocols and one PET/CT MPI protocol. The results suggest that there may be opportunities to optimise the patient radiation burden from administered activities in patients undergoing SPECT examinations and the CT components associated with 82RB PET/CT scans without compromising diagnostic image quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
15 pages, 1281 KiB  
Review
Role of Echocardiography in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: From Mechanisms to Clinical Practice
by Hrvoje Urlic, Marko Kumric, Josip Vrdoljak, Dinko Martinovic, Goran Dujic, Marino Vilovic, Tina Ticinovic Kurir and Josko Bozic
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10020046 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
It has been well established that diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a core risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, what is less appreciated is the fact that DM may affect cardiac function irrespective of cardiac pathologies to which it [...] Read more.
It has been well established that diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a core risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, what is less appreciated is the fact that DM may affect cardiac function irrespective of cardiac pathologies to which it contributes, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. Although echocardiography provides accurate and reproducible diagnostic and prognostic data in patients with DM, its use in these patients is still underappreciated, resulting in progression of DM-related heart failure in many patients. Hence, in the present review, we aimed to discuss the role of echocardiography in the contemporary management of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), as well as the role of emerging echocardiographic techniques, which may contribute to earlier diagnosis and more appropriate management of this complication of DM. In order to improve outcomes, focus must be placed on early diagnosis of this condition using a combination of echocardiography and emerging biomarkers, but perhaps the more important thing is to change perspective when it comes to the clinical importance of DCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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18 pages, 3694 KiB  
Review
Left Ventricular Adverse Remodeling in Ischemic Heart Disease: Emerging Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers
by Camilla Calvieri, Alessandra Riva, Francesco Sturla, Lorenzo Dominici, Luca Conia, Carlo Gaudio, Fabio Miraldi, Francesco Secchi and Nicola Galea
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010334 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Post-ischemic left ventricular (LV) remodeling is a biologically complex process involving myocardial structure, LV shape, and function, beginning early after myocardial infarction (MI) and lasting until 1 year. Adverse remodeling is a post-MI maladaptive process that has been associated with long-term poor clinical [...] Read more.
Post-ischemic left ventricular (LV) remodeling is a biologically complex process involving myocardial structure, LV shape, and function, beginning early after myocardial infarction (MI) and lasting until 1 year. Adverse remodeling is a post-MI maladaptive process that has been associated with long-term poor clinical outcomes. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) is the best tool to define adverse remodeling because of its ability to accurately measure LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and their variation over time and to characterize the underlying myocardial changes. Therefore, CMR is the gold standard method to assess in vivo myocardial infarction extension and to detect the presence of microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial hemorrhage, both associated with adverse remodeling. In recent times, new CMR quantitative biomarkers emerged as predictive of post-ischemic adverse remodeling, such as T1 mapping, myocardial strain, and 4D flow. Additionally, CMR T1 mapping imaging may depict infarcted tissue and assess diffuse myocardial fibrosis by using surrogate markers such as extracellular volume fraction, which may predict functional recovery or risk stratification of remodeling. Finally, there is emerging evidence supporting the utility of intracavitary blood flow kinetic energy and hemodynamic features assessed by the 4D flow CMR technique as early predictors of remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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14 pages, 1675 KiB  
Article
Different Causes of Functional Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation Are Linked to Differences in Tricuspid Valve and Right-Sided Heart Geometry and Function: 3D Echocardiography Study
by Aušra Krivickienė, Dovydas Verikas, Rita Krečkauskienė, Lina Padervinskienė, Deimantė Hoppenot, Skaidrius Miliauskas, Justina Jolanta Vaškelytė and Eglė Ereminienė
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010057 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the tricuspid valve (TV) and right ventricular (RV) geometry and function characteristics using 3D echocardiography-based analysis and to identify echocardiographic predictors for severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in different etiologies of functional TR [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the tricuspid valve (TV) and right ventricular (RV) geometry and function characteristics using 3D echocardiography-based analysis and to identify echocardiographic predictors for severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in different etiologies of functional TR (fTR). Methods and Results: The prospective study included 128 patients (median age 64 years, 57% females): 109 patients with moderate or severe fTR (69-caused by dominant left-sided valvular pathology (LSVP), 40 due to precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH)), and 19 healthy controls. The 2D and 3D-transthoracic echocardiography analysis included TV, right atrium, RV geometry, and functional parameters. All the RV geometry parameters as well as 3D TV parameters were increased in both fTR groups when compared to controls. Higher RV diameters, length, areas, volumes, and more impaired RV function were in PH group compared to LSVP group. PH was associated with larger leaflet tenting height, volume, and more increased indices of septal-lateral and major axis tricuspid annulus (TA) diameters. LVSP etiology was associated with higher anterior-posterior TA diameter and sphericity index. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and ROC analyses revealed that different fTR etiologies were associated with various 2D and 3D echocardiographic parameters to predict severe TR: major axis TA diameter and TA perimeter, the leaflet tenting volume had the highest predictive value in PH group, septal-lateral systolic TA diameter-in LSVP group. The 3D TA analysis provided more reliable prediction for severe fTR. Conclusions: TV and RV geometry vary in different etiologies of functional TR. Precapillary PH is related to more severe RV remodeling and dysfunction and changes of TV geometry, when compared to LSVP group. The 3D echocardiography helps to determine echocardiographic predictors of severe TR in different fTR etiologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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14 pages, 2903 KiB  
Article
Myocardial Contractility Pattern Characterization in Radiation-Induced Cardiotoxicity Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pilot Study with ContractiX
by El-Sayed H. Ibrahim, Antonio Sosa, Sherry-Ann Brown, Dayeong An, Slade Klawikowski, John Baker and Carmen Bergom
Tomography 2023, 9(1), 36-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9010004 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Radiation therapy (RT) plays an integral role in treating thoracic cancers, despite the risk of radiation-induced cardiotoxicity. We hypothesize that our newly developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based contractility index (ContractiX) is a sensitive marker for early detection of RT-induced cardiotoxicity in a preclinical [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy (RT) plays an integral role in treating thoracic cancers, despite the risk of radiation-induced cardiotoxicity. We hypothesize that our newly developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based contractility index (ContractiX) is a sensitive marker for early detection of RT-induced cardiotoxicity in a preclinical rat model of thoracic cancer RT. Adult salt-sensitive rats received image-guided heart RT and were imaged with MRI at 8 weeks and 10 weeks post-RT or sham. The MRI exam included cine and tagging sequences to measure left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), mass, myocardial strain, and ContractiX. Furthermore, ventricular torsion, diastolic strain rate, and mechanical dyssynchrony were measured. Statistical analyses were performed between the sham, 8 weeks post-RT, and 10 weeks post-RT MRI parameters. The results showed that both LVEF and myocardial mass increased post-RT. Peak systolic strain and ContractiX significantly decreased post-RT, with a more relative reduction in ContractiX compared to strain. ContractiX showed an inverse nonlinear relationship with LVEF and continuously decreased with time post-RT. While early diastolic strain rate and mechanical dyssynchrony significantly changed post-RT, ventricular torsion changes were not significant post-RT. In conclusion, ContractiX measured via non-contrast MRI is a sensitive early marker for the detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction post-RT, and it is superior to other MRI cardiac measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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7 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Indicators of Left Ventricular Performance Obtained by Tissue Doppler Imaging in Prematurely Born Neonates
by Nenad Barišić
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(11), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9110364 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Introduction: Tissue Doppler imaging techniques (pulsed-wave TDI (pwTDI) and color-coded TDI (cTDI)) allow for the assessment of myocardial performance during the cardiac cycle. The application of such techniques in neonatology is sporadic and poorly studied. Objective: The objective of the present study was [...] Read more.
Introduction: Tissue Doppler imaging techniques (pulsed-wave TDI (pwTDI) and color-coded TDI (cTDI)) allow for the assessment of myocardial performance during the cardiac cycle. The application of such techniques in neonatology is sporadic and poorly studied. Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine average values of pwTDI indicators of left ventricular performance (maximum systolic velocity of the mitral annulus (s’), maximum velocity in early diastole (e’) and maximum velocity in late diastole (a’)) and to examine their dynamics in prematurely born newborns in the first week of life. Methods: Prematurely born newborns of postnatal age up to 7 days were divided by gestational age into Group1 (<28 weeks) and Group 2 (≥28 weeks). Standard pwTDI parameters (s’, e’ and a’) were measured, compared between the groups and correlated with gestational and postnatal age, as well as application of respiratory support. Results: Fifty subjects were included (Group 1: 24; Group 2: 26). Average values of parameters s’, e’ and a’ were: Group 1: 4.06 ± 0.78 cm/s, 3.71 ± 0.40 cm/s and 3.98 ± 1.06 cm/s, respectively; Group 2: 4.18 ± 1.22 cm/s, 4.68 ± 1.04 cm/s and 4.12 ± 0.94 cm/s, respectively. Values of parameter e’ differed significantly between groups (p = 0.001) and strongly correlated with gestational age (p = 0, Pearson’s R = 0.88). There was no significant difference between groups for parameters s’ and a’ (p = 0.42 and 0.31, respectively). The values of s’, e’ and a’ did not differ between patients with an without respiratory support. Conclusion: Parameter e’ depends on gestational age, whereas parameters s’ and a’ are independent of gestational age. pwTDI indicators do not change during the first week of life, nor are all robust to hemodynamic circumstances caused by invasive/non-invasive respiratory support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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16 pages, 17113 KiB  
Review
The Dysfunctional Right Ventricle in Dilated Cardiomyopathies: Looking from the Right Point of View
by Maria L. Iovănescu, Diana R. Florescu, Andreea S. Marcu, Ionuț Donoiu, Sebastian Militaru, Cristina Florescu, Octavian Istrătoaie and Constantin Militaru
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(10), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9100359 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs) are a heterogenous group of primary myocardial diseases, representing one of the leading causes of heart failure, and the main indication for heart transplantation. While the degree of left ventricular dilation and dysfunction are two key determinants of adverse outcomes [...] Read more.
Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs) are a heterogenous group of primary myocardial diseases, representing one of the leading causes of heart failure, and the main indication for heart transplantation. While the degree of left ventricular dilation and dysfunction are two key determinants of adverse outcomes in DCM patients, right ventricular (RV) remodeling and dysfunction further negatively influence patient prognosis. Consequently, RV functional assessment and diagnosing RV involvement by using an integrative approach based on multimodality imaging is of paramount importance in the evaluation of DCM patients and provides incremental prognostic and therapeutic information. Transthoracic echocardiography remains the first-line imaging modality used for the assessment of the RV, and newer techniques such as speckle-tracking and three-dimensional echocardiography significantly improve its diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. Nonetheless, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard imaging modality for the evaluation of RV size and function, and all DCM patients should be evaluated by CMR at least once. Accordingly, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the anatomy and function of the RV, and the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prognostic value of RV dysfunction in DCM patients, based on traditional and novel imaging techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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15 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
High Temporal Resolution Dual-Source Photon-Counting CT for Coronary Artery Disease: Initial Multicenter Clinical Experience
by Martin Soschynski, Florian Hagen, Stefan Baumann, Muhammad Taha Hagar, Jakob Weiss, Tobias Krauss, Christopher L. Schlett, Constantin von zur Mühlen, Fabian Bamberg, Konstantin Nikolaou, Simon Greulich, Matthias F. Froelich, Philipp Riffel, Daniel Overhoff, Theano Papavassiliu, Stefan O. Schoenberg, Sebastian Faby, Stefan Ulzheimer, Isabelle Ayx and Patrick Krumm
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(20), 6003; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11206003 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of spectral dual-source photon-counting detector coronary computed tomography angiography (PCD-CCTA) for coronary artery disease in a multicenter study. The image quality (IQ), assessability, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), Agatston score, and radiation exposure [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of spectral dual-source photon-counting detector coronary computed tomography angiography (PCD-CCTA) for coronary artery disease in a multicenter study. The image quality (IQ), assessability, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), Agatston score, and radiation exposure were measured. Stenoses were quantified and compared with invasive coronary angiography, if available. A total of 92 subjects (65% male, age 58 ± 14 years) were analyzed. The prevalence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (stenosis ≥ 50%) was 17% of all patients, the range of the Agatston score was 0–2965 (interquartile range (IQR) 0–135). The IQ was very good (one, IQR one–two), the CNR was very high (20 ± 10), and 5% of the segments were rated non-diagnostic. The IQ and assessability were higher in proximal coronary segments (p < 0.001). Agatston scores up to 600 did not significantly affect the assessability of the coronary segments (p = 0.3). Heart rate influenced assessability only at a high-pitch mode (p = 0.009). For the invasive coronary angiography (ICA) subgroup (n = nine), the diagnostic performance for CAD per segment was high (sensitivity 92%, specificity 96%), although the limited number of patients who underwent both diagnostic modalities limits the generalization of this finding at this stage. PCD-CCTA provides good image quality for low and moderate levels of coronary calcifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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13 pages, 1312 KiB  
Systematic Review
Long-Term Prognostic Value of Myocardial Viability by Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography in Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Jingxin Wang, Mengxi Yang, Zhi Yang, Lu Ye, Hong Luo and Yingkun Guo
Medicina 2022, 58(10), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58101429 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2319
Abstract
Background and Objectives: According to recent guidelines, myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) is recommended for detecting residual myocardial viability (MV). However, the long-term prognostic value of MV as assessed by MCE in identifying major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: According to recent guidelines, myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) is recommended for detecting residual myocardial viability (MV). However, the long-term prognostic value of MV as assessed by MCE in identifying major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains undefined. Materials and Methods: We searched multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies on the prognostic value of MCE for clinical outcomes in AMI patients. The primary endpoints were MACEs during follow-up. Six studies that evaluated a total of 536 patients with a mean follow-up of 36.8 months were reviewed. Results: The pooled sensitivity and specificity of MCE for predicting MACEs were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, and the summary operating receiver characteristics achieved an area under the curve of 0.84. The pooled relative risks demonstrated that the MV evaluated by MCE after AMI was correlated with a high risk for total cardiac events (pooled relative risk: 2.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.28–3.37) and cardiac death (pooled relative risk: 2.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–5.96). MV evaluated by MCE was a highly independent predictor of total cardiac events (pooled hazard ratio: 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.14–3.81) in patients after AMI. Conclusions: Residual MV evaluated by MCE may be an effective long-term prognostic tool for predicting MACE in patients after AMI that can provide moderate predictive accuracy. The assessment of MV by MCE may become an alternative technique with the potential to rapidly provide important information for improving long-term risk stratification in patients after AMI, at the bedside in clinical practice, especially for patients who cannot tolerate prolonged examinations. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42020167565. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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8 pages, 2222 KiB  
Case Report
Transcatheter Double Valve Replacement to Treat Aortic Stenosis and Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation with 3D Printing Guidance after Mechanical Mitral Valve Replacement
by Mengen Zhai, Yu Mao, Yanyan Ma, Yang Liu and Jian Yang
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(9), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9090296 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Background: Transcatheter treatments of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) have been emerging as alternatives for high-risk patients. In contrast to the immobilization of the common transcatheter tricuspid device, using a radial force-independent stent valve device at the native tricuspid annular site has several distinct advantages. [...] Read more.
Background: Transcatheter treatments of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) have been emerging as alternatives for high-risk patients. In contrast to the immobilization of the common transcatheter tricuspid device, using a radial force-independent stent valve device at the native tricuspid annular site has several distinct advantages. Case summary: A 76-year-old patient with renal insufficiency who underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement in 2001 and transcatheter aortic valve replacement in 2021 due to severe aortic stenosis presented with chest pain and shortness of breath. Echocardiography suggested that the flow velocities of the mitral mechanical valve and aortic prosthetic valve were both within the normal range, with no significant paravalvular regurgitation; the tricuspid valve exhibited massive regurgitation (VMAX 258 cm/s, PGMAX 27 mmHg). Due to the high surgical risk, we simulated the procedure with a three-dimensional (3D)-printed model and performed transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement using a LuX-Valve (Ningbo Jenscare Biotechnology Co., Ningbo, China). Discussion: We describe transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement using the LuX-Valve and preprocedural guidance with 3D printing. Postprocedural TR was significantly reduced, indicating that 3D printing plays an important role in preprocedural guidance and that the LuX-Valve was safe and practicable for tricuspid valve replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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16 pages, 3144 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Left Atrial Size and Function in Cardiac MR in Correlation to Non-Gated MR and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subjects without Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study
by Charlotte Kulka, Roberto Lorbeer, Esther Askani, Elias Kellner, Marco Reisert, Ricarda von Krüchten, Susanne Rospleszcz, Dunja Hasic, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg and Christopher L. Schlett
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2202-2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050185 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Background: In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the comparability of gated and non-gated measurements of the left atrial (LA) area and function and their association with cardiovascular risk factors have not been firmly established. Methods: 3-Tesla MRIs were performed on 400 subjects enrolled in [...] Read more.
Background: In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the comparability of gated and non-gated measurements of the left atrial (LA) area and function and their association with cardiovascular risk factors have not been firmly established. Methods: 3-Tesla MRIs were performed on 400 subjects enrolled in the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region) MRI study. The LA maximum and minimum sizes were segmented in gated CINE four-chamber sequences (LAmax and LAmin) and non-gated T1 VIBE-Dixon (NGLA). The area-based LA function was defined as LAaf = (LAmax − LAmin)/LAmax. Inter-and intra-reader reliability tests were performed (n = 31). Linear regression analyses were conducted to link LA size and function with cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Data from 378 subjects were included in the analysis (mean age: 56.3 years, 57.7 % male). The measurements were highly reproducible (all intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98). The average LAmax was 19.6 ± 4.5 cm2, LAmin 11.9 ± 3.5 cm2, NGLA 16.8 ± 4 cm2 and LAaf 40 ± 9%. In regression analysis, hypertension was significantly associated with larger gated LAmax (β = 1.30), LAmin (β = 1.07), and non-gated NGLA (β = 0.94, all p ≤ 0.037). Increasing age was inversely associated with LAaf (β = −1.93, p < 0.001). Conclusion: LA enlargement, as measured in gated and non-gated CMR is associated with hypertension, while the area-based LA function decreases with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cardiac Imaging: State of the Art)
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