Topic Editors

Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University, No.29 Anseodong, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University, No.29 Anseodong, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Sustainable Development of Natural bioactive compounds/Products in Animal Resource and Agriculture Science

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
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49291

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds derived from natural resources will be an excellent source of therapeutics and industrial in animal-agricultural production systems. For centuries, wild plants, animals and microorganisms have been considered natural factories for the biosynthesis of thousands of bioactive compounds with diverse biological activities to treat various diseases and maintain good health. For this reason, it receives special attention in agricultural, commercial industries, and pharmaceutical applications. These Bioactive compounds are additional nutritional constituent found small quantities in foods and provide health benefits beyond the basic nutritional value of the product. The use of natural bioactive compounds instead of synthetic chemicals attracts scientists, researchers, and commercial industries as they are renewable, degradable, safe, and low toxic. Plant bioactive compounds are widespread in the plant kingdom, including forage species. Besides, the extractions of bioactive compounds from plants has been viewed as treasured substances since ancient times, even by sovereigns. In most facilities, the animals are kept at relatively high densities, causing stress and disease problems that are well known. It is clear from most studies that farm problems can be encountered through measures to prevent an outbreak of disease or through the treatment of the actual disease by drugs or chemicals. As long as effective prevention of all diseases cannot be achieved, the animal farmer has no choice. It is important, in the short term, to choose drugs which are not immunosuppressive/feed additives.

This topic welcomes publications which focus on any aspect of animals (pigs, cattle, aquatic animal, poultry, rabbits, rats, etc.) in agricultural production systems, including immunology or nutrition, which increases animals’ resistance to infection and enhances their growth and production performances. In this Topic, we invite researchers to contribute their original or review articles on sustainable development of natural bioactive compounds/products in animals, agriculture, poultry, agronomy and fishery. Additionally, papers are welcome that focus on the potential bioactivities of extracted natural compounds and their potential biological applications in human welfare.

Prof. Dr. In Ho Kim
Dr. Shanmugam Sureshkumar
Dr. Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • feed additives
  • plan based feed
  • antioxidants, anti-inflammatory
  • bioactive compounds from various natural resources
  • biological activities of bioactive compounds
  • mycotoxin
  • microorganism

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.3 4.9 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Agronomy
agronomy
3.3 6.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Animals
animals
2.7 4.9 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400
Fishes
fishes
2.1 1.9 2016 15.7 Days CHF 2600
Poultry
poultry
- - 2022 25.1 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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2 pages, 1456 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Fang et al. Gandouling Mitigates CuSO4-Induced Heart Injury in Rats. Animals 2022, 12, 2703
by Shuzhen Fang, Wenming Yang, Kangyi Zhang and Chuanyi Peng
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223527 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 530
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
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11 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Fermented Chinese Herbal Medicine Promoted Growth Performance, Intestinal Health, and Regulated Bacterial Microbiota of Weaned Piglets
by Guang Chen, Zhiqing Li, Shuangli Liu, Tuo Tang, Qinghua Chen, Zhaoming Yan, Jie Peng, Zhikang Yang, Guanfeng Zhang, Yating Liu and Mengli Zheng
Animals 2023, 13(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030476 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
To investigate the effects of fermented Chinese herbal medicine on growth performance, diarrhea rate, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal health of weaned piglets, and to provide the theoretical basis for applying fermented Chinese herbal medicines to weaned piglet production, a total of 162 weaned [...] Read more.
To investigate the effects of fermented Chinese herbal medicine on growth performance, diarrhea rate, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal health of weaned piglets, and to provide the theoretical basis for applying fermented Chinese herbal medicines to weaned piglet production, a total of 162 weaned and castrated piglets at 25 days of age (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, half male and half female) with an initial body weight of 7.77 ± 0.03 kg were randomly divided into the following three groups according to the principle of similar body weight: basal diet (CON) group, basal diet + 3 kg/t fermented Chinese herbal medicine (LFHM) group, and basal diet + 5 g/kg fermented Chinese herbal medicine (HFHM) group. Each group underwent six replicates and there were nine piglets in each replicate. The experiment lasted 24 days, i.e., 3 days for preliminary feeding, and 21 days for the experiment. From Day 1 of the experiment, the piglets were observed and recorded for diarrhea each day. As compared with the CON group, the results indicated: Following the addition of fermented Chinese herbal medicine, the piglets in the LFHM and HFHM groups increased final weight (FW); average daily feed intake (ADFI); average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.01); apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) (p < 0.05); as well as chymotrypsin, α-amylase, and lipase activities (p < 0.01). In addition, α-amylase activity in the LFHM group was higher than that in the HFHM group (p < 0.05); chymotrypsin activity in the LFHM group was lower than that in the HFHM group (p < 0.05); as compared with the CON group, the LFHM and the HFHM increased villus height (VH) and crypt depth (CD) in piglet jejunum; isovaleric acid concentration with the HFHM was higher than those with the CON and the LFHM (p < 0.05), but butyrate concentration with the HFFM was lower than those with the CON and the LFHM (p < 0.05). The high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of intestinal microbiota results showed that the LFHM and the HFHM affected the microbial α diversity index in weaned piglet colon (p < 0.01). In conclusion, fermented Chinese herbs can improve the growth performance of weaned piglets by promoting the secretion of intestinal digestive enzymes, changing intestinal microbial diversity, regulating the contents of intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), promoting intestinal health, and improving nutrients digestibility. Full article
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22 pages, 4486 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Blend of Algae Extract Supplementation on Growth, Biochemical, Haemato-Immunological Response, and Immune Gene Expression in Labeo rohita with Aeromonas hydrophila Post-Challenges
by Govindharajan Sattanathan, Wen-Chao Liu, Swaminathan Padmapriya, Karthika Pushparaj, Shanmugam Sureshkumar, Jang-Won Lee, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian and In Ho Kim
Fishes 2023, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8010007 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3835
Abstract
In this study, the effects of a mixed algal blend (Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena viridis, and Spirulina platensis) at different levels were evaluated on growth, hematological immune responses, and expression of immune genes in Labeo rohita against post-challenges of Aeromonas hydrophila. [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of a mixed algal blend (Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena viridis, and Spirulina platensis) at different levels were evaluated on growth, hematological immune responses, and expression of immune genes in Labeo rohita against post-challenges of Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish samples were fed a diet containing different levels of mixed blend algal (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% of basal diet). At the end of the feeding period, the fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fish mortality was recorded over a 14-days period. To evaluate the serum biochemical (albumin, globulin), hematological parameters (Hb, RBC and WBC) and immune parameters (neutrophil activity, lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, antiprotease activity, ceruloplasmin activity, and bactericidal activity), as well as the expression of immune genes (NKEF-B, Lysozyme C and G, TNF α, TLR22, β2M, and β-actin), fish were sampled on Day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were challenged with virulent A. hydrophila 30 days post-feeding and mortalities were recorded over 30 days post-infection. Results demonstrate that fish fed with a mixed algal blend showed that total body weight gain, specific growth rate, total serum protein, globulin, total hemoglobin content, white blood cells, neutrophil, lysozyme, bactericidal, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activity in dietary algae blended application was higher than in the control (p < 0.05). According to the results, relative expression of target genes showed significant increases of 0.02 to 0.04% in the treatment group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). At the end of the 30-day exposure to A. hydrophila, the fish that received the mixed algal blend had a significantly higher rate of survival than the control group, with the highest survival rate recorded in the 0.02% mixed algal blend (p < 0.05). According to the effective results of the mixed algal blend on stimulating the immune system and increasing fish resistance to A. hydrophila, it is recommended to use 0.02 to 0.04% of this mixed algal blend in rohu, L. rohita diets. Full article
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10 pages, 2990 KiB  
Article
Gandouling Mitigates CuSO4-Induced Heart Injury in Rats
by Shuzhen Fang, Wenming Yang, Kangyi Zhang and Chuanyi Peng
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192703 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1799 | Correction
Abstract
We assessed the protective effects of Gandouling (GDL) on copper sulfate (CuSO4)-induced heart injuries in Sprague–Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into the control, CuSO4, GDL + CuSO4 and penicillamine + CuSO4 groups. The rats received intragastric [...] Read more.
We assessed the protective effects of Gandouling (GDL) on copper sulfate (CuSO4)-induced heart injuries in Sprague–Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into the control, CuSO4, GDL + CuSO4 and penicillamine + CuSO4 groups. The rats received intragastric GDL (400 mg/kg body weight) once per day for 42 consecutive days after 56 days of CuSO4 exposure, and penicillamine was used as a positive control. The levels of plasma inflammatory cytokines (IMA, hFABP, cTn-I and BNP) were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histopathological symptoms were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. To determine the underlying mechanism, Western blotting was conducted for the detection of the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. The results revealed that GDL supplementation alleviated the histopathological symptoms of the rat heart tissue, promoted Cu excretion to attenuate impairment, and significantly decreased inflammatory cytokine levels in the plasma (p < 0.01). In addition, GDL increased the HO-1 expression in the rat hepatic tissue. The protective effect of GDL on the heart was superior to that of penicillamine. Overall, these findings indicate that GDL alleviates hepatic heart injury after a Cu overaccumulation challenge, and GDL supplements can be beneficial for patients with Wilson’s disease. Full article
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16 pages, 4315 KiB  
Article
Uncovering the Fecal Bacterial Communities of Sympatric Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) and Wapiti (Cervus canadensis)
by Jiakuo Yan, Xiaoyang Wu, Xibao Wang, Yongquan Shang and Honghai Zhang
Animals 2022, 12(18), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182468 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Microbial symbiotic associations may be beneficial, neutral, or harmful to the host. Symbionts exploit the host space and nutrition or use hosts as carriers to spread to other environments. In order to investigate the fecal bacterial communities of wild sika deer (Cervus [...] Read more.
Microbial symbiotic associations may be beneficial, neutral, or harmful to the host. Symbionts exploit the host space and nutrition or use hosts as carriers to spread to other environments. In order to investigate the fecal bacterial communities of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis), this study aimed to sequence and explore the composition of, and similarity between, the fecal microbiota of sika deer and wapiti using high-throughput sequencing. The composition and relative abundance of fecal microbiota, alpha diversity, and differences in beta diversity between the two species were analyzed. We found that no pathogenic bacteria were present in large quantities in the hosts. The dominant bacterial phyla found in the two deer species were similar and included Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes. Moreover, the deer also shared similar dominant genera, including the Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005, and Bacteroides. These results demonstrate that the sika deer and wapiti share a similar fecal microbiotal structure, probably due to their common diet and living environment, but there was some evidence of a difference at the species level. These analyses provide new insights into the health status of deer populations outside protected environments and offer a scientific framework for monitoring the health conditions of sika deer and wapiti. Full article
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16 pages, 2151 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Shifts in the Gut Bacterial Community of Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles Supplemented with Allium-Derived Compound Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate (PTSO)
by Miguel Rabelo-Ruiz, Antonio M. Newman-Portela, Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez, Antonio Manuel Martín-Platero, María del Mar Agraso, Laura Bermúdez, María Arántzazu Aguinaga, Alberto Baños, Mercedes Maqueda, Eva Valdivia and Manuel Martínez-Bueno
Animals 2022, 12(14), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141821 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
This study analyzes the potential use of an Allium-derived compound, propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), as a functional feed additive in aquaculture. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles had their diet supplemented with this Allium-derived compound (150 mg/kg of PTSO) and [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the potential use of an Allium-derived compound, propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), as a functional feed additive in aquaculture. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles had their diet supplemented with this Allium-derived compound (150 mg/kg of PTSO) and were compared with control fish. The effects of this organosulfur compound were tested by measuring the body weight and analyzing the gut microbiota after 12 weeks. The relative abundance of potentially pathogenic Vibrio and Pseudomonas in the foregut and hindgut of supplemented fish significantly decreased, while potentially beneficial Lactobacillus increased compared to in the control fish. Shannon’s alpha diversity index significantly increased in both gut regions of fish fed with a PTSO-supplemented diet. Regarding beta diversity, significant differences between treatments only appeared in the hindgut when minority ASVs were taken into account. No differences occurred in body weight during the experiment. These results indicate that supplementing the diet with Allium-derived PTSO produced beneficial changes in the intestinal microbiota while maintaining the productive parameters of gilthead seabream juveniles. Full article
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14 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Fucoidan Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Small Intestinal Barrier Function, and Cecal Microbiota of Weaned Goat Kids
by Weiguang Yang, Guangzhen Guo, Jiayi Chen, Shengnan Wang, Zhenhua Gao, Zhihui Zhao and Fuquan Yin
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121591 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fucoidan supplementation on serum biochemical parameters, small intestinal barrier function, and cecal microbiota of weaned goat kids. A total of 60 2-month-old weaned castrated male goat kids (Chuanzhong black goat) were used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fucoidan supplementation on serum biochemical parameters, small intestinal barrier function, and cecal microbiota of weaned goat kids. A total of 60 2-month-old weaned castrated male goat kids (Chuanzhong black goat) were used in this 30-day experiment. The goat kids were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (CON) fed the basal diet, and three other groups supplemented with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% fucoidan in the basal diet (denoted as F1, F2, and F3 groups, respectively). The results indicated that dietary fucoidan supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the content of glucose (GLU) as measured on day 15. As measured on day 30, dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the content of total protein (TP) and decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and supplementation with 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of LDH. Dietary fucoidan decreased (p < 0.05) the content of D-lactic acid (D-LA) and the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). Dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the activity of catalase (CAT) in the duodenum. Dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan enhanced (p < 0.05) the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the ileum, the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in the jejunum and ileum, and the activity of CAT in the ileum. Dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan reduced the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the duodenum. Dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the duodenum. Supplementation of 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan upregulated (p < 0.05) the gene expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and dietary supplementation of 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan upregulated (p < 0.05) the gene expression of occludin in the jejunum and ileum. The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing results showed that at the phylum level, dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the abundance of Bacteroidetes while decreasing (p < 0.05) the abundance of Firmicutes. At the genus level, dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the abundances of Unspecified_Ruminococcaceae, Unspecified_Bacteroidale, Unspecified_Clostridiales, and Akkermansia. In conclusion, dietary fucoidan supplementation had positive effects on intestinal permeability, antioxidant capacity, immunity function, tight junctions, and the cecal microflora balance in weaned goat kids. Full article
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13 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on Biomass, Polyphenol Contents, and Essential Oil Yield and Composition of Vitex negundo Linn
by Li-Chen Peng and Lean-Teik Ng
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060859 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Nutrient management has increasingly become important in producing quality medicinal plant materials. Vitex negundo is an important perennial medicinal plant widely distributed in tropical Asia and Africa. This study aimed to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on the [...] Read more.
Nutrient management has increasingly become important in producing quality medicinal plant materials. Vitex negundo is an important perennial medicinal plant widely distributed in tropical Asia and Africa. This study aimed to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on the biomass, polyphenol contents, and essential oil yield and composition in field cultivated V. negundo. Two field experiments were conducted; one was performed on three different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, and 200 kg-N ha−1), and the other was on different P fertilizer rates (50, 100, and 200 kg-P ha−1), with their respective control groups receiving no fertilization under field conditions. The results showed that at 200 kg-P ha−1, V. negundo had the highest biomass and essential oil yield, the highest number of volatile components (45 compounds), and the content of bioactive ingredients (β-caryophyllene and eremophilene). Polyphenol contents were not significantly different between treatments. This study indicates that 200 kg-P ha−1 (NPK ratio of 1:2:1) treatment positively affects the yield of biomass, essential oils, and bioactive compounds in field cultivated V. negundo. Full article
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15 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa) on Performance, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
by Muhammad Umair Asghar, Sibel Canoğulları Doğan, Martyna Wilk and Mariusz Korczyński
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101298 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
The current study was conducted to determine the effect of adding black cumin (Nigella sativa) powder (BCP) to the Japanese quail diet on the carcass characteristics and meat quality. In this research, 240 Japanese quail chicks (mean initial body weight 9.15 [...] Read more.
The current study was conducted to determine the effect of adding black cumin (Nigella sativa) powder (BCP) to the Japanese quail diet on the carcass characteristics and meat quality. In this research, 240 Japanese quail chicks (mean initial body weight 9.15 ± 0.12) were divided into four groups of four replications each. Treatments consisted of the addition of BCP at levels 1, 2, and 4% to the mixed feed and control group without the BCP additive. Compared to the other groups, the group with the 2% BCP diet had a higher live weight (LW), body weight gain (BWG), and a better feed conversion ratio (FCR, p < 0.05). BCP administration had no impact on the carcass characteristics, however, BCP had a significant effect on the thigh and breast meat. The animal study protocol was approved by the Niğde Governorship, Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry, Turkey (protocol code: E-15018773-050.01.04-75932 and date of approval: 26 April 2021) for studies involving animals. Lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA), pH, peroxide, and total psychrophilic bacteria levels were found in the BCP added groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). When compared with the control, the sensory properties such as color, juiciness, softness, and flavor were significantly higher in the BCP treated groups, especially when fed the 2% BCP diet. It can be concluded that BCP as an additive to quail feeds had a significant effect on the performance of quails as well as on the shelf life of the meat. In order to avoid health and environmental concerns, it was concluded that BCP can be used as a natural additive to replace synthetic antimicrobials and antioxidants at the level of 1–2% in quail compound feeds. Full article
14 pages, 2806 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Sequencing to Identify Important Genes and lncRNAs Regulating Abdominal Fat Deposition in Ducks
by Chunyan Yang, Zhixiu Wang, Qianqian Song, Bingqiang Dong, Yulin Bi, Hao Bai, Yong Jiang, Guobin Chang and Guohong Chen
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101256 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
Abdominal fat deposition is an important trait in meat-producing ducks. F2 generations of 304 Cherry Valley and Runzhou Crested White ducks were studied to identify genes and lncRNAs affecting abdominal fat deposition. RNA sequencing was used to study abdominal fat tissue of four [...] Read more.
Abdominal fat deposition is an important trait in meat-producing ducks. F2 generations of 304 Cherry Valley and Runzhou Crested White ducks were studied to identify genes and lncRNAs affecting abdominal fat deposition. RNA sequencing was used to study abdominal fat tissue of four ducks each with high or low abdominal fat rates. In all, 336 upregulated and 297 downregulated mRNAs, and 95 upregulated and 119 downregulated lncRNAs were identified. Target gene prediction of differentially expressed lncRNAs identified 602 genes that were further subjected to Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. The target genes were enriched in pathways associated with fat synthesis and metabolism and participated in biological processes, including Linoleic acid metabolism, lipid storage, and fat cell differentiation, indicating that these lncRNAs play an important role in abdominal fat deposition. PPAPA, FOXO3, FASN, PNPLA2, FKBP5, TCF7L2, BMP2, FGF2, LIFR, ZBTB16, SIRT, GYG2, NCOR1, and NR3C1 were involved in the regulation of abdominal fat deposition. PNPLA2, TCF7L2, FGF2, LIFR, BMP2, FKBP5, GYG2, and ZBTB16 were regulated by the lncRNAs TCONS_00038080, TCONS_0033547, TCONS_00066773, XR_001190174.3, XR_003492471.1, XR_003493494.1, XR_001192142.3, XR_002405656.2, XR_002401822.2, XR_003497063.1, and so on. This study lays foundations for exploring molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of abdominal fat deposition in ducks and provides a theoretical basis for breeding high-quality meat-producing ducks. Full article
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13 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Improved Egg Production and Antioxidative Function in Laying Breeders
by Yinhao Li, Qingyue Zhang, Yonghui Feng, Sumei Yan, Binlin Shi, Xiaoyu Guo, Yanli Zhao and Yongmei Guo
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101225 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore the dietary effect of chitosan on the production performance, and antioxidative enzyme activities and corresponding gene expression in the liver and duodenum of laying breeders. A total of 450 laying breeders (92.44% ± 0.030% of hen-day egg [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to explore the dietary effect of chitosan on the production performance, and antioxidative enzyme activities and corresponding gene expression in the liver and duodenum of laying breeders. A total of 450 laying breeders (92.44% ± 0.030% of hen-day egg production) were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments fed 8 weeks: maize-soybean meal as the basal control diet and the basal diet containing 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of chitosan, respectively. Each treatment was randomly divided into 6 equal replicates, with 15 laying breeders in each replicate. The results showed that dietary chitosan could increase hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, especially at the level of 250~500 mg/kg; however, chitosan had no prominent effect on feed intake and average egg weight. Dietary chitosan could dose-dependently promote the antioxidant status in serum, liver and duodenum of layer breeders. It has a better promotion effect at the level of 500 mg/kg; however, the effect was weakened at the level of 2000 mg/kg. Chitosan was likely to enhance the gene expression and activities of Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxification enzyme by up-regulating the expression of Nrf2, thereby improving the antioxidant capacity of laying breeder hens. Full article
16 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Productive Performance, Serum Antioxidant Status, Tissue Selenium Deposition, and Gut Health Analysis of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Selenium and Probiotics—A Pilot Study
by Shengting Deng, Shengjun Hu, Junjing Xue, Kaili Yang, Ruiwen Zhuo, Yuanyuan Xiao and Rejun Fang
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091086 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2481
Abstract
The effect and interaction of dietary selenium (Se) and probiotics on three yellow chicken growth performance, tissue Se content, antioxidant capacity, and gut health were studied from 0 to 70 days of age. A total of 400 one-day-old broilers were distributed into four [...] Read more.
The effect and interaction of dietary selenium (Se) and probiotics on three yellow chicken growth performance, tissue Se content, antioxidant capacity, and gut health were studied from 0 to 70 days of age. A total of 400 one-day-old broilers were distributed into four groups (I-Se, O-Se, I-Se + pros, and O-Se + pros groups) consisting of a 2 × 2 factorial design. The main factors were the source of Se (I-Se = inorganic Se: 0.2 mg/kg sodium selenite; O-Se = organic Se: 0.2 mg/kg Selenium yeast) and the level of probiotics (0.5% EM or 0% EM, the component of EM mainly includes Lactobacillus and Yeast at the dose of 2 × 108 cfu/kg and 3 × 107 cfu/kg, respectively). Each treatment had 5 duplicates consisting of 20 broilers. The results showed that the I-Se group had a greater (p < 0.05) ratio of feed: weight gain (F/G) of broilers at Starter (0–35 d) than the other treatments. Compared to the I-Se group, the O-Se group increased (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the liver, pancreas, breast muscles, thigh muscle, and the activity of total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum, as well as the relative abundance of Barnesiella and Lactobacillus in cecum. Meanwhile, probiotics enhanced (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the pancreas, thigh muscle, serum, and the activity of T-AOC and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the duodenum’s ratio of villi height to crypt depth (V/C), the jejunum villus height and V/C, and the ileum’s villus height. Furthermore, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between Se sources and the level of probiotics were observed in Se concentrations in the pancreas, thigh muscle, serum, crypt depth of duodenum, and villus height of jejunum of birds, and Barnesiella abundance in the cecal. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the combination of O-Se + pros can improve broiler early growth performance, tissue Se content in the pancreas, thigh muscle, and serum, promote intestinal development, and regulate the composition of intestinal flora, suggesting a better combination. These findings provide an effective method of nutrient combination addition to improving the performance of three yellow chickens. Full article
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14 pages, 1644 KiB  
Article
Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Diversity of Broussonetia papyrifera Leaves Ensiled with Lactobacillus plantarum and Stored at Different Temperatures
by Mingyang Zheng, Wei Zhou, Xuan Zou, Shuo Wu, Xiaoyang Chen and Qing Zhang
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12050986 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Broussonetia papyrifera has increasingly been used as a high-quality feedstuff for ruminants due to its advantageous characteristics. The storage temperature can influence the fermentation quality of silage; however, the effect of temperature on B. papyrifera leaves (BPL) silage has not been reported. In [...] Read more.
Broussonetia papyrifera has increasingly been used as a high-quality feedstuff for ruminants due to its advantageous characteristics. The storage temperature can influence the fermentation quality of silage; however, the effect of temperature on B. papyrifera leaves (BPL) silage has not been reported. In the present study, the fermentation quality and bacterial community of BPL, stored at 15 °C and 30 °C, were investigated during ensiling (day 3, 7, 14, 30) with or without Lactobacillus plantarum strain (LP) added. The pH and the coliform bacteria counts were significantly lower in silage stored at 30 than 15 °C (p < 0.01), while the lactic acid content increased significantly (p < 0.05). Adding LP decreased the dry matter loss, pH, coliform bacteria count, and ammonia-N and butyric acid contents at 30 °C. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased, while the bacterial diversity decreased in the silage stored at 30 °C when LP was added. During silage, the high abundance of Lactobacillus decreased gas and carbon dioxide (CO2) production, and the lowest gas and CO2 production were detected in silage stored at 30 °C when LP was added. In conclusion, adding LP and storing it at 30 °C could effectively improve the quality of BPL silage. Full article
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14 pages, 1185 KiB  
Article
Phytic Acid Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba)—Annual and Varietal Effects, and Influence of Organic Cultivation Practices
by Jenny Zehring, Sinja Walter, Ulrich Quendt, Kathleen Zocher and Sascha Rohn
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040889 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2481
Abstract
Legumes such as faba beans (Vicia faba) are once again gaining popularity, especially in Europe. This is due to the fact that they are an important source of plant-based proteins for human as well as animal nutrition. In addition to a [...] Read more.
Legumes such as faba beans (Vicia faba) are once again gaining popularity, especially in Europe. This is due to the fact that they are an important source of plant-based proteins for human as well as animal nutrition. In addition to a high protein content, faba beans have a wide range of secondary plant metabolites (SPMs). Some of them, such as phytic acid (PA, inositol hexakisphosphate), are discussed controversially with regard to their role as dietary compounds. As ecophysiological conditions and agronomical practices are well known to alter SPMs in (food) plants, it is hypothesized that the farming system has an impact on the overall SPMs content in plants and there might be a correlation between organically grown bean samples and PA content. Consequently, this study aimed at characterizing the German-wide variation in the PA content of faba beans produced under real cultivation conditions. Influencing factors such as cultivar and use of organic or conventional cultivation have been evaluated in order to reveal dependencies of PA in legumes. All bean samples were obtained from different conventional and organic farms from eleven German federal states over three consecutive cultivation years (2016–2018). However, beans did not show annual effects in PA content. As expected, there were dependencies related to the cultivar. Furthermore, significant differences between conventionally and organically grown beans were found, independent of fungicide or insecticide use. Full article
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18 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Effects of Postbiotics and Paraprobiotics as Replacements for Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Small Intestine Histomorphology, Immune Status and Hepatic Growth Gene Expression in Broiler Chickens
by Yohanna Danladi, Teck Chwen Loh, Hooi Ling Foo, Henny Akit, Nur Aida Md Tamrin and Mohammad Naeem Azizi
Animals 2022, 12(7), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070917 - 3 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4094
Abstract
Background: This experiment was designed to investigate how replacing antibiotics with postbiotics and paraprobiotics could affect growth performance, small intestine morphology, immune status, and hepatic growth gene expression in broiler chickens. Methods: The experiment followed a completely randomized design (CRD) in which eight [...] Read more.
Background: This experiment was designed to investigate how replacing antibiotics with postbiotics and paraprobiotics could affect growth performance, small intestine morphology, immune status, and hepatic growth gene expression in broiler chickens. Methods: The experiment followed a completely randomized design (CRD) in which eight treatments were replicated six times with seven birds per replicate. A total of 336, one-day-old (COBB 500) chicks were fed with the eight treatment diets, which include T1 = negative control (Basal diet), T2 = positive control (Basal diet + 0.01% (w/w) Oxytetracycline), T3 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) postbiotic TL1, T4 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) postbiotic RS5, T5 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) paraprobiotic RG11, T6 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) postbiotic RI11, T7 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) paraprobiotic RG14, T8 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) paraprobiotic RI11, for 35 days in a closed house system. Results: The growth performance indicators (final body weight, cumulative weight gain, and feed conversion ratio) were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. However, feed intake recorded a significant (p < 0.05) change in the starter and finisher phases across the dietary treatments. Paraprobiotic RG14 had significantly (p < 0.05) lower abdominal fat and intestines. Villi heights were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, while the crypt depth decreased significantly due to dietary treatments. The dietary treatments significantly influenced colon mucosa sIgA (p < 0.05). Similarly, plasma immunoglobulin IgM level recorded significant (p < 0.05) changes at the finisher phase. In this current study, the hepatic GHR and IGF-1 expressions were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by postbiotics and paraprobiotics supplementation. Conclusions: Therefore, it was concluded that postbiotics and paraprobiotics differ in their effect on broiler chickens. However, they can replace antibiotics without compromising the growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of broiler chickens. Full article
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20 pages, 353 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sustainable Feeding Systems, Combining Total Mixed Rations and Pasture, on Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Capacity in Jersey Dairy Cows
by Anita Șanta, Daniel Mierlita, Stelian Dărăban, Claudia Terezia Socol, Simona Ioana Vicas, Mihai Șuteu, Cristina Maria Maerescu, Alina Stefania Stanciu and Ioan Mircea Pop
Animals 2022, 12(7), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070908 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
This study was carried out to assess the effect of using pasture combined with total mixed ration (TMR) on milk production and composition, fatty acid (FA) profiles, fat-soluble antioxidant content, and total milk antioxidant capacity (TAC). In addition, the effect of milk pasteurization [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to assess the effect of using pasture combined with total mixed ration (TMR) on milk production and composition, fatty acid (FA) profiles, fat-soluble antioxidant content, and total milk antioxidant capacity (TAC). In addition, the effect of milk pasteurization and storage at 2 °C for 4 days, lipophilic antioxidants and TAC were assessed. Two homogeneous groups of Jersey cows (n = 8) were constituted, which were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments: TMR (without access to pasture), or partial mixed diet (pTMR: grazing 8 h/day + TMR indoors). To establish FA profiles and lipophilic antioxidants’ changes in milk during the grazing period, in case of the pTMR group the experimental period was spilt in three grazing periods: P1 (May), P2 (June), and P3 (June/July). Milk yielded from cows having limited access on pasture (pTMR diet) showed an improved FA profile, with higher concentrations of FAs considered benefic for human health (vaccenic acid (VA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), omega-3 FA (n-3 FA)) (p < 0.01) and a lower concentration of FAs with hypercholesterolemiant potential (C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0) (p < 0.05), compared to that of the TMR diet. This change in FA profile was correlated with improved sanogenous lipid indices of milk fat (n-6/n-3 FA atherogenic index and thrombogenic index). Milk yielded during the P1 grazing period had higher concentrations of VA, CLA, and n-3 FA (p < 0.05) and lower concentrations of C14:0 and C16:0 (p < 0.01); it exhibited the best values for the main sanogenous fat lipid indices of fat. Moreover, pTMR milk showed a higher α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene content (p < 0.05), positively correlated with TAC values in milk (P1 ˃ P2 ˃ P3). By comparison, cows fed using the TMR diet yielded a higher quantity of milk (p < 0.05), but a lower fat and protein content (p < 0.01), and also a higher saturated FAs and n-6 FA content (p < 0.05) together with a lower concentration of lipophilic antioxidants in milk. Thermal treatment showed no effect on α-tocopherol and retinol content in milk, but their concentrations decreased during the storage, at the same time a TAC decrease. The results of this study prove the positive effect of using pasture combined with TMR on FA profiles, milk antioxidant content, and antioxidant capacity, with beneficial effects on nutrition and health in humans. Full article
9 pages, 404 KiB  
Article
Shorter Grazing Time and Supplementation Are Beneficial for Gastrointestinal Tract Development and Carcass Traits of Growing Lambs
by Yanmei Jin, Muhammad Asad, Xiaoqing Zhang, Jize Zhang and Ruizhi Shi
Animals 2022, 12(7), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070878 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
The effects of restricted grazing durations on the gastrointestinal development and carcass quality of growing lambs are poorly understood. In this study, 32 lambs were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8, body weight = 21.86 kg) corresponding to 2, 4, [...] Read more.
The effects of restricted grazing durations on the gastrointestinal development and carcass quality of growing lambs are poorly understood. In this study, 32 lambs were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8, body weight = 21.86 kg) corresponding to 2, 4, 8 and 12 h of grazing per day. When off-pasture, all lambs were housed and fed concentrate and hay. When the grazing time decreased from 12 h to 2 h, the abomasum weight and large intestine length decreased (p = 0.019; p = 0.069). Compared to lambs grazed for 12 h, animals grazed for 2–4 h had a greater villus height and villus-to-crypt ratio in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum segments (p < 0.05); the 2 h lambs had superior carcass quality and a smaller diameter and area of the gluteus medium muscle fibers (p < 0.05), with no significant change after 4 h of grazing. The results indicated that shorter grazing times and supplementation were beneficial for the gastrointestinal tract development and carcass quality of growing lambs. Therefore, a better grazing management approach in Inner Mongolia could be to restrict the grazing of lambs to 4 h per day instead of grazing for more extended periods. Full article
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15 pages, 2250 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis Revealed the Specific Soil Properties and Foliar Elements Respond to the Quality Composition Levels of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.)
by Wen-Yu Tseng and Hung-Yu Lai
Agronomy 2022, 12(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12030670 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
C. sinensis cv. Sijichun is a representative Taiwanese low-altitude tea cultivar native to central Taiwan. To enrich the taste of tea in a geographically disadvantaged area, soil management became necessary but was obscure. The purpose of this study was to screen the main [...] Read more.
C. sinensis cv. Sijichun is a representative Taiwanese low-altitude tea cultivar native to central Taiwan. To enrich the taste of tea in a geographically disadvantaged area, soil management became necessary but was obscure. The purpose of this study was to screen the main soil factors that influence the quality composition levels of tea to optimize the efficiency of tea tree horticulture. Soil and tea leaf samples collected from 20 tea plantations determined thirteen soil properties, nine leaf element nutrients and aluminum, and five main extractable quality compositions, including polyphenols, catechins, flavones, free amino acids, and caffeine in tea infusion. Pearson’s correlation analysis and principal component correlation analysis showed that soil available nutrients cannot respond to the concentration of corresponding essential elements in tea leaves; nevertheless, adequate leaf macronutrients and Zn could enhance polyphenol, free amino acid, and caffeine contents, but decreased flavone contents, and showed their consistent effect by soil characteristics. Of note, soil pH, EC, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, total concentration of manganese, and total concentration of copper were shown as significant impact factors on free amino acid content. In summary, regulating the pH of soil under 3.51–5.21 in our study and managing soil effective Ca, Mg, and Zn supply could help to obtain a greater umami taste of tea. Full article
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11 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
Effects of In Ovo Injection of Zinc or Diet Supplementation of Zinc on Performance, Serum Biochemical Profiles, and Meat Quality in Broilers
by Hee-Jin Kim and Hwan-Ku Kang
Animals 2022, 12(5), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050630 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
This study investigated the main effects of the in ovo injection of inorganic zinc (Zn) or diet supplementation of Zn on performance, serum biochemical profiles, and breast meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were randomly divided into [...] Read more.
This study investigated the main effects of the in ovo injection of inorganic zinc (Zn) or diet supplementation of Zn on performance, serum biochemical profiles, and breast meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups: the control (Con, noninjected and basal diet), in ovo (injected 60 mg Zn/egg at 18 embryonic days of incubation and basal diet), Zn100 (noninjected and basal diet with Zn (100 mg/kg) for 35 days), and Zn200 (noninjected and basal diet with Zn (200 mg/kg) for 35 days) groups. The dietary supplementation of Zn increased feed intake (2860.42–2861.08 g), weight (1975.06–1985.25 g), and weight gain (1936.36–1946.53 g) compared to Con (2785.74, 1891.38, and 1852.62 g, respectively) after five weeks of age. No significant difference was found in biochemical parameters and leukocyte and erythrocyte levels in the blood among the four different groups. In ovo injected or supplemental Zn (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased IgG in the blood of broilers. Zn200 increased polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fatty acid contents were reduced in breast meat compared with Con. In conclusion, Zn supplementation at 200 mg/kg could improve the weight, feed intake, blood immune response, and fatty acid profile of breast meat. Full article
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13 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Effects of Replacing Dietary Fish Meal by Soybean Meal Co-Fermented Using Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium on Serum Antioxidant Indices and Gut Microbiota of Crucian Carp Carassius auratus
by Qian Xu, Zheng Yang, Siyu Chen, Wenjuan Zhu, Siyuan Xiao, Jing Liu, Hongquan Wang and Shile Lan
Fishes 2022, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020054 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3184 | Correction
Abstract
Fermented soybean meal (FSM) is an important feed material that can replace fish meal to solve the shortage of animal protein. To improve the utilization of FSM, we optimized the co-fermentation conditions of soybean meal using Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium and studied [...] Read more.
Fermented soybean meal (FSM) is an important feed material that can replace fish meal to solve the shortage of animal protein. To improve the utilization of FSM, we optimized the co-fermentation conditions of soybean meal using Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium and studied the effects of replacing fish meal with different proportions of FSM on serum antioxidant indices and gut microbiota (GM) composition of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Our results showed that the co-fermentation of soybean meal was the most effective when the ratio of B. subtilis X-2 and E. faecium X-4 was 2:3, glucose addition was 4.5%, KH2PO4 addition was 0.15%, MgSO4·7H2O addition was 0.1%, anhydrous sodium acetate addition was 0.4%, fermentation time was 120 h, and the solid–water ratio was 1:1. Replacing 40% fish meal with FSM in the feed significantly improved the serum T-AOC, POD, and IgM levels in C. auratus. Although there were significant differences in the midgut and hindgut microbiota structures of C. auratus, the addition of FSM to the feed did not cause significant differences in the GM structure, whether in the midgut or hindgut. Therefore, 40% FSM is the most suitable substitute for fish meal in the feed of C. auratus. Full article
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