Topic Editors

Laboratory EBI (Ecology and Biology of interactions), University of Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7267, F-86073 Poitiers, France
Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Genomics (CBGP UPM-INIA), Campus de Montegancedo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain
Department of Animal Science, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea

Plant Metabolism under Stress

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 May 2023)
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32911

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Under climatic change conditions, plants are subjected to a multitude of abiotic and biotic stress factors. Plant stresses induce alterations in the primary metabolism and lead to oxidative stress, the disruption of the osmotic homeostasis, the damage of membrane and functional proteins, and the induction of secondary messengers, such as Ca2+ and ROS. Stresses trigger the production of phytohormones, leading to alterations in plant balance, which are components that are involved in plants’ adaption to numerous external stimuli. Significant progress has been made to characterize stress-modified metabolic pathways. For instance, stress-responsive proteins, such as antioxidative enzymes and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, as well as lignification-related enzymes and their roles in stress responses and tolerance mechanisms have been extensively studied. Moreover, the characterization of core hormone signaling components and their gene expression profile in response to abiotic and biotic stresses have progressed. Increasing evidence of the regulatory role of ROS in primary and secondary metabolism, redox control and Ca2+-dependent photosynthesis has been provided. More recently, new insights into the hormone-induced innate immune system in the plant–pathogen interaction have been presented. Cultivar and/or genotypic variation in water and nutrient use efficiency have been included as an important subject in management and breeding programs to improve the plant stress tolerance. Articles on recent advances in plant metabolism with regard to stress responses and tolerance mechanisms are welcome. We encourage the submission of high-quality original research articles, short communications, reviews, mini-reviews, and perspective papers. This special topic is concerned with fundamental and applied plant physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and related interdisciplinary fields, covering the scope of MDPI journals Agriculture, Agronomy, Metabolites, Plants and Crops.

Dr. Cécile Vriet
Prof. Dr. Luis Gómez
Prof. Dr. Tae-Hwan Kim
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • stress-responsive proteins
  • Redox sensing processes
  • alteration of primary metabolism
  • stress intensity-responsive ROS signaling
  • secondary metabolites
  • plant-microbiome interactions
  • plant innate immunity
  • cultivar and/or genotype variation.

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Agronomy
agronomy
3.7 5.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Crops
crops
- - 2021 30.5 Days CHF 1000
Metabolites
metabolites
4.1 5.3 2011 13.2 Days CHF 2700
Plants
plants
4.5 5.4 2012 15.3 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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17 pages, 3052 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Quantification and Visualization of Photosynthetic Pigments in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under Different Levels of Nitrogen Application with Visible-Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Technology
by Jiangui Zhao, Ning Chen, Tingyu Zhu, Xuerong Zhao, Ming Yuan, Zhiqiang Wang, Guoliang Wang, Zhiwei Li and Huiling Du
Plants 2023, 12(16), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12162956 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Leaf photosynthetic pigments play a crucial role in evaluating nutritional elements and physiological states. In facility agriculture, it is vital to rapidly and accurately obtain the pigment content and distribution of leaves to ensure precise water and fertilizer management. In our research, we [...] Read more.
Leaf photosynthetic pigments play a crucial role in evaluating nutritional elements and physiological states. In facility agriculture, it is vital to rapidly and accurately obtain the pigment content and distribution of leaves to ensure precise water and fertilizer management. In our research, we utilized chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophylls (Chls) and total carotenoids (Cars) as indicators to study the variations in the leaf positions of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Under 10 nitrogen concentration applications, a total of 2610 leaves (435 samples) were collected using visible-near infrared hyperspectral imaging (VNIR–HSI). In this study, a “coarse–fine” screening strategy was proposed using competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and the iteratively retained informative variable (IRIV) algorithm to extract the characteristic wavelengths. Finally, simultaneous and quantitative models were established using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The CARS–IRIV–PLSR was used to create models to achieve a better prediction effect. The coefficient determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio performance deviation (RPD) were predicted to be 0.8240, 1.43 and 2.38 for Chla; 0.8391, 0.53 and 2.49 for Chlb; 0.7899, 2.24 and 2.18 for Chls; and 0.7577, 0.27 and 2.03 for Cars, respectively. The combination of these models with the pseudo-color image allowed for a visual inversion of the content and distribution of the pigment. These findings have important implications for guiding pigment distribution, nutrient diagnosis and fertilization decisions in plant growth management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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15 pages, 9468 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Putrescine and Glutamic Acid on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation of Malus baccata Borkh. Roots under Suboptimal Low Root-Zone Temperature
by Xiaochen Lu, Meiqi Zhao, Enda Zhou, Huaiyu Ma and Deguo Lyu
Agronomy 2023, 13(8), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13081989 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 770
Abstract
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is found in plants and accumulates rapidly under stresses. However, the contributions of glutamic acid and a (Glu)-derived pathway and polyamines (PAs) catabolism pathway on GABA accumulation and the regulatory effects of exogenous putrescine (Put) on a GABA shunt under [...] Read more.
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is found in plants and accumulates rapidly under stresses. However, the contributions of glutamic acid and a (Glu)-derived pathway and polyamines (PAs) catabolism pathway on GABA accumulation and the regulatory effects of exogenous putrescine (Put) on a GABA shunt under suboptimal low root-zone temperatures remain unknown. Our results showed that suboptimal low root-zone temperatures (treatment L) significantly increased GABA contents and GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities. The contribution rate of the PAs catabolism pathway increased from 20.60% to 43.31%. Treatment L induced oxidative stress in Malus baccata Borkh. roots. Exogenous Put increased the contents of endogenous Put, spermine (Spm), and spermidine (Spd), promoted the transformation of PAs, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and decreased the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Meanwhile, contrasting results were observed after aminoguanidine (AG, an inhibitor of diamine oxidase) application. These findings revealed that the Glu-derived pathway is the main route of GABA synthesis. The contribution rate of the Pas catabolism pathway increased gradually with the extension of treatment time, and the treatment of exogenous Put significantly improved the tolerance of Malus baccata Borkh. Roots to suboptimal low temperature by regulating the transformation of Pas, GABA shunt, and the antioxidant system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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20 pages, 2407 KiB  
Article
Metabolome and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal the Differences in the Molecular Mechanisms of Oat Leaves Responding to Salt and Alkali Stress Conditions
by Jianhui Bai, Peina Lu, Feng Li, Lijun Li and Qiang Yin
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061441 - 23 May 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Plant growth and production are more severely inhibited by alkalinity than by salinity. However, the metabolites responsible for the reduced growth caused by alkalinity are largely unknown. Here, the Illumina RNA-Seq analysis and targeted metabolome were used to identify the differentially expressed genes [...] Read more.
Plant growth and production are more severely inhibited by alkalinity than by salinity. However, the metabolites responsible for the reduced growth caused by alkalinity are largely unknown. Here, the Illumina RNA-Seq analysis and targeted metabolome were used to identify the differentially expressed genes and metabolites responding to salt and alkali stresses. The expression levels of eight genes related to photosynthesis and some genes related to chlorophyll synthesis decreased under alkali stress, whereas no changes were detected under salt stress, which may explain the observed lower level of photosynthetic rate in alkalinity than in salinity. Under alkali stress, significant decreases in the relative abundances of cis-cinnamic acid and scopoline were observed, which correlated with the high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of protocatechuic acids decreased, correlating with the observed decrease in the chlorophyll content. Alkalinity markedly increased the production of o-coumaric acid, which contributes to growth inhibition. No significant changes in cis-cinnamic acid, scopoline, and o-coumaric acid were detected in salinity, which may be the reason for the stronger growth inhibition due to alkali stress than salt stress. The accumulation of citric acid, serotonin, pyroglutamic acid, L-citrulline, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid was detected under salt and alkali stress conditions, indicating high free radical scavenging capacity. The enhancement of mevalonic acid and salicylic acid levels was detected under alkali stress, which could have facilitated chlorophyll accumulation. Salt and alkali stress conditions also led to the accumulation of cyclic AMP related to inorganic ion regulation and betaine-related osmoregulation. Benzamide, phenethylamine, N-feruloyltyramine, chrysoeriol 6-C-hexoside, 1,3-o-di-p-coumaroyl glycerol, cordycepin, and 1-o-p-cumaroylglycerol were identified to be accumulated in response to alkali stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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10 pages, 2113 KiB  
Communication
Phytosterols Are Involved in Sclareol-Induced Chlorophyll Reductions in Arabidopsis
by Asma Ben Hmidene, Hiroshi Ono and Shigemi Seo
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061282 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Sclareol, a diterpene, has a wide range of physiological effects on plants, such as antimicrobial activity; disease resistance against pathogens; and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism, transport, and phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling. Exogenous sclareol reduces the content of chlorophyll [...] Read more.
Sclareol, a diterpene, has a wide range of physiological effects on plants, such as antimicrobial activity; disease resistance against pathogens; and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism, transport, and phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling. Exogenous sclareol reduces the content of chlorophyll in Arabidopsis leaves. However, the endogenous compounds responsible for sclareol-induced chlorophyll reduction remain unknown. The phytosterols campesterol and stigmasterol were identified as compounds that reduce the content of chlorophyll in sclareol-treated Arabidopsis plants. The exogenous application of campesterol or stigmasterol dose-dependently reduced the content of chlorophyll in Arabidopsis leaves. Exogenously-applied sclareol enhanced the endogenous contents of campesterol and stigmasterol and the accumulation of transcripts for phytosterol biosynthetic genes. These results suggest that the phytosterols campesterol and stigmasterol, the production of which is enhanced in response to sclareol, contribute to reductions in chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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14 pages, 3804 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Analysis of Key Metabolites and Their Pathways Revealed the Response of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Root Exudates to rac-GR24 under Drought Stress
by Yuwei Yang, Mingzhou Gu, Junfeng Lu, Xin’e Li, Dalin Liu and Lin Wang
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051163 - 03 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
The rac-GR24, an artificial analog of strigolactone, is known for its roles in inhibiting branches, and previous studies have reported that it has a certain mechanism to relieve abiotic stress, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms of mitigation for drought-induced remain unclear. Therefore, [...] Read more.
The rac-GR24, an artificial analog of strigolactone, is known for its roles in inhibiting branches, and previous studies have reported that it has a certain mechanism to relieve abiotic stress, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms of mitigation for drought-induced remain unclear. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify associated metabolic pathways that are regulated by rac-GR24 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and to determine the metabolic mechanisms of rac-GR24 that are involved in drought-induced root exudate. The alfalfa seedling WL-712 was treated with 5% PEG to simulate drought, and rac-GR24 at a concentration of 0.1 µM was sprayed. After three days of treatment, root secretions within 24 h were collected. Osmotic adjustment substances and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured as physiological indicators, while LS/MS was performed to identify metabolites regulated by rac-GR24 of root exudate under drought. The results demonstrated that rac-GR24 treatment could alleviate the negative effects from drought-induced on alfalfa root, as manifested by increased osmotic adjustment substance content, cell membrane stability, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Among the 14 differential metabolites, five metabolites were uniquely downregulated in plants in rac-GR24 treatment. In addition, rac-GR24 could relieve drought-induced adverse effects on alfalfa through metabolic reprogramming in the pathways of the TCA cycle, pentose phosphate, tyrosine metabolism, and the purine pathway. This study indicated that rac-GR24 could improve the drought resistance of alfalfa by influencing the components of root exudates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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22 pages, 3014 KiB  
Article
Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) Genotypes for Horse Gram Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance
by Sudhagar Rajaprakasam, Priyanka Shanmugavel, Vanniarajan Chockalingam, Souframanien Jegadeesan, Tnpalayam Krishnaswamy Sukirtha Latha, Saravanan Naaganoor Ananthan, Raveendran Muthurajan and Selvaraju Kanagarajan
Metabolites 2023, 13(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13020165 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) is an under-utilized legume grown in India. It is a good source of protein, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. We screened 252 horse gram germplasm accessions for horse gram yellow mosaic virus resistance using the [...] Read more.
Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) is an under-utilized legume grown in India. It is a good source of protein, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. We screened 252 horse gram germplasm accessions for horse gram yellow mosaic virus resistance using the percent disease index and scaling techniques. The percentage values of highly resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible, susceptible, and highly susceptible were 0.34, 13.89, 38.89, 46.43, and 0.34, respectively. Repetitive trials confirmed the host-plant resistance levels, and yield loss was assessed. The present disease index ranged from 1.2 to 72.0 and 1.2 to 73.0 during the kharif and rabi seasons of 2018, respectively. The maximum percent yield loss was noticed in the HS (75.0 –89.4), while HR possessed the minimum (1.2–2.0). The methanolic leaf extracts of highly resistant and highly susceptible genotypes with essential controls were subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Differential accumulation of metabolites was noticed, and a total of 81 metabolites representing 26 functional groups were identified. Both highly resistant and susceptible genotypes harbored eight unique classes, while ten biomolecules were common. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicated a distinct metabolite profile. Fold change in the common metabolites revealed an enhanced accumulation of sugars, alkanes, and carboxylic acids in the highly resistant genotype. The principal component analysis plots explained 93.7% of the variation. The metabolite profile showed a significant accumulation of three anti-viral (octadecanoic acid, diphenyl sulfone, and 2-Aminooxazole), one insecticidal (9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol), one antifeedant (cucurbitacin B), and six metabolites with unknown biological function in the highly resistant genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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20 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Early Identification of Plant Drought Stress Responses: Changes in Leaf Reflectance and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Selection-The Case Study of Tomato Plants
by Ana Paula Rosa, Lúcia Barão, Lélia Chambel, Cristina Cruz and Margarida Maria Santana
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010183 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
Drought is a worldwide problem, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Detection of drought stress at the initial stages, before visible signs, to adequately manage irrigation and crop fertilization to avoid crop yield loss, is a desire of most farmers. Here, we evaluated [...] Read more.
Drought is a worldwide problem, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Detection of drought stress at the initial stages, before visible signs, to adequately manage irrigation and crop fertilization to avoid crop yield loss, is a desire of most farmers. Here, we evaluated the response of tomato plants to water scarcity, through changes in leaf reflectance due to modification in leaf pigments’ content, which translates into differences in spectral reflectance indices (SRI) values. Our methodology is innovative, as we were able to easily calculate and identify several SRIs for the early detection of drought stress “invisible” responses. We used a handheld spectro-radiometer to obtain SRI values from leaves of tomato plants growing under two different water regimes for 37 days. In an ensemble of 25 SRIs, we identified 12 that showed a consistent trend of significant differences between treatments along the experiment and within these, NDVI, SR, ZMI, Ctr2, GM1, and GM2 were already significantly different between treatments at day 7 after the start of the experiment and Ctr1 at day 9; although, no signs of damage were visible. Therefore, our results pinpoint these SRIs as promising proxies for the early detection of “invisible” responses to drought onset. We also analyzed the relationship between the monitored SRIs and plant morphological parameters measured during the experiment, highlighting a relationship between GM1 and plant height and leaf number. Finally, we observed a high abundance of putative beneficial bacteria among isolates collected from the tomato water-limited rhizo-environment at the terminus of the experiment, suggesting the active recruitment or selection of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria by tomato roots as a response to drought. Our work may be adapted into an easy protocol, of rapid execution, to be used in small-scale fields for early drought stress detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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16 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Variation of Sorghum Accessions for Grain Yield and Quality Traits
by Thulo Sejake, Nemera Shargie, Sandiswa Figlan, Alina Mofokeng and Toi John Tsilo
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123089 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Millions of people depend on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a staple food crop. Due to the ever-changing climate, more focus should be placed on sorghum as it can grow in environments that are marginal for maize (Zea mays L.) [...] Read more.
Millions of people depend on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a staple food crop. Due to the ever-changing climate, more focus should be placed on sorghum as it can grow in environments that are marginal for maize (Zea mays L.) and other grain crops. Identification of unique accessions with desirable phenotypic variations allow plant breeders to use the accessions as parental material in a breeding program. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of diversity in sorghum accessions based on grain yield and quality traits, as well as to identify accessions with high grain yield. One hundred sorghum accessions were evaluated at Potchefstroom (South Africa) in two consecutive growing seasons. The experiment was laid out in a 20 × 5 alpha lattice design with three replications. ANOVA showed highly significant (p = 0.01) variation among the accessions for all traits. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.209) between starch and grain yield. Seven high-yielding accessions with high protein and seven accessions with high starch were identified. These accessions could be used for improving yield, protein and starch in the grain. Tannin content ranged from zero to 24.40 mgCE/100 mg; 75 accessions were characterized as type I. Seven accessions were characterized as type II, and 18 accessions were characterized as type III. The 100 sorghum accessions were grouped into five distinct clusters that offer a wide range of phenotypic variation for the traits studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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15 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Drought-Induced Xylem Sulfate Activates the ABA-Mediated Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation and Glutathione Redox in Brassica napus Leaves
by Bok-Rye Lee, Sang-Hyun Park, Van Hien La, Dong-Won Bae and Tae-Hwan Kim
Metabolites 2022, 12(12), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12121190 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Drought intensity modifies the assimilatory pathway of glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a representative signaling hormone involved in regulating plant stress responses. This study aimed to investigate an interactive regulation of sulfate and/or ABA in GSH metabolism and redox. The drought-responsive [...] Read more.
Drought intensity modifies the assimilatory pathway of glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a representative signaling hormone involved in regulating plant stress responses. This study aimed to investigate an interactive regulation of sulfate and/or ABA in GSH metabolism and redox. The drought-responsive alterations in sulfate assimilation and GSH-based redox reactions were assessed relative to ABA responses on the time-course of drought intensity. Drought-responsive H2O2 concentrations were divided into two distinct phases—an initial 4 days of no change (Ψw ≥ −0.49 MPa) and a phase of higher accumulation during the late phase of the drought (days 10–14; Ψw ≤ −1.34 MPa). During the early phase of the drought, GSH/GSSG redox state turned to the slightly reduced state with a transient increase in GSH, resulting from a strong activation of H2O2 scavenging enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione reductase (GR). The late phase of the drought was characterized by a decrease in GSH due to cysteine accumulation, shifting GSH- and NADPH-based redox states to higher oxidization, increasing sulfate and ABA in xylem, and causing ABA accumulation in leaves. Regression analysis revealed that sulfate in xylem sap was positively correlated with H2O2 concentrations and ABA was closely related to decreases in the GSH pool and the oxidation of GSH catalyzed by glutathione peroxidase (GPOX). These results indicate that drought-induced oxidation proceeds through the suppression of GSH synthesis and further GSH oxidation in a sulfate-activated ABA-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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19 pages, 2821 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Metabolic Effects of the Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Solanum tuberosum Crops under Water Stress
by Analía Valdebenito, Javiera Nahuelcura, Christian Santander, Pablo Cornejo, Boris Contreras, Sergio Gómez-Alonso and Antonieta Ruiz
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192539 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Solanum tuberosum is one of the most important crops in the world; however, drought has caused significant losses in its production. One solution is the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In this study, the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of the leaves [...] Read more.
Solanum tuberosum is one of the most important crops in the world; however, drought has caused significant losses in its production. One solution is the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In this study, the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of the leaves of two potato genotypes (VR808 and CB2011-104) were evaluated over time in crops inoculated with two strains of AMF, as well as a consortium, in combination with a commercial fungicide. In addition, three usable humidity levels were established after the beginning of tuberization. The phenolic compounds found during the first sampling time in the VR808 genotype reached a maximum of 3348 mg kg−1, and in the CB2011-104 genotype, they reached a maximum of 2982 mg kg−1. Seven phenolic compounds were detected in the VR808 genotype, and eleven were detected in the CB2011-104 genotype, reaching the highest concentration at the last sampling time. The antioxidant activity in the first sampling was greater than the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and in the third sampling, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) predominated. The association of AMF with the plant by PCA demonstrated that these fungi assist in protecting the plants against water stress, since in the last harvest, the results were favorable with both mycorrhizae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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13 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
The Different Metabolic Responses of Resistant and Susceptible Wheats to Fusarium graminearum Inoculation
by Caixiang Liu, Fangfang Chen, Laixing Liu, Xinyu Fan, Huili Liu, Danyun Zeng and Xu Zhang
Metabolites 2022, 12(8), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12080727 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious wheat disease caused by Fusarium graminearum (Fg) Schwabe. FHB can cause huge loss in wheat yield. In addition, trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fg are harmful to the environment and humans. In our previous study, [...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious wheat disease caused by Fusarium graminearum (Fg) Schwabe. FHB can cause huge loss in wheat yield. In addition, trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fg are harmful to the environment and humans. In our previous study, we obtained two mutants TPS1 and TPS2. Neither of these mutants could synthesize trehalose, and they produced fewer mycotoxins. To understand the complex interaction between Fg and wheat, we systematically analyzed the metabolic responses of FHB-susceptible and -resistant wheat to ddH2O, the TPS mutants and wild type (WT) using NMR combined with multivariate analysis. More than 40 metabolites were identified in wheat extracts including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, choline metabolites and other metabolites. When infected by Fg, FHB-resistant and -susceptible wheat plants showed different metabolic responses. For FHB-resistant wheat, there were clear metabolic differences between inoculation with mutants (TPS1/TPS2) and with ddH2O/WT. For the susceptible wheat, there were obvious metabolic differences between inoculation with mutant (TPS1/TPS2) and inoculation with ddH2O; however, there were no significant metabolic differences between inoculation with TPS mutants and with WT. Specifically, compared with ddH2O, resistant wheat increased the levels of Phe, p-hydroxy cinnamic acid (p-HCA), and chlorogenic acid in response to TPS mutants; however, susceptible wheat did not. Shikimate-mediated secondary metabolism was activated in the FHB-resistant wheat to inhibit the growth of Fg and reduce the production of mycotoxins. These results can be helpful for the development of FHB-resistant wheat varieties, although the molecular relationship between the trehalose biosynthetic pathway in Fg and shikimate-mediated secondary metabolism in wheat remains to be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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28 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought and Low Nitrogen Stress Tolerance
by Sbongeleni Duma, Hussein Shimelis and Toi John Tsilo
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061384 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Drought stress and nitrogen (N) deficiency are the major causes of yield losses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) production. Breeding wheat cultivars with combined drought and low N stress tolerance is an economical approach for yield gains. The objective of this [...] Read more.
Drought stress and nitrogen (N) deficiency are the major causes of yield losses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) production. Breeding wheat cultivars with combined drought and low N stress tolerance is an economical approach for yield gains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of diverse bread wheat genotypes under drought and low N stress conditions to select high-performing genotypes for developing breeding populations and production to mitigate against drought and low N stress. Fifty bread wheat genotypes were evaluated under drought-stressed (DS) and non-stressed (NS) conditions and N application rates of 50, 100 and 200 kg N ha−1. The experiments were conducted in a controlled environment and field conditions during the 2019/20 cropping season. Data on grain yield and yield components were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. The four-way interaction involving genotype, water regime, N treatments and testing environment had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on all assessed agronomic traits, suggesting that genotype response depended on the treatment combinations. Drought stress and 50 kg N ha1 reduced grain yield by 20% compared to NS and 50 kg N ha−1. The grain yield ranged from 120 to 337 g/m2, with a mean of 228 g/m2 under DS. Under DS and 200 kg N ha−1, the genotype designated as SBO 19 had a higher grain yield of 337 g/m2, followed by SBO 22 (335 g/m2), SBO 16 (335 g/m2), SBO 04 (335 g/m2) and SBO 33 (335 g/m2). Grain yields under DS and 50 kg N ha−1, and NS and 50 kg N ha−1 had a positive and significant correlation (r > 0.5; p < 0.01) with most of the evaluated traits. Highly correlated traits directly contribute to total yield gain and should be incorporated during the selection of high-yielding genotypes. The study identified the 10 best lines that are high-yielding with early flowering and maturity under DS or NS conditions and the three N treatments. The selected lines are recommended as breeding parents to develop drought-adapted and N-use efficient genetic resources. The identified genotypes are important for sustainable wheat production and effective breeding of improved cultivars to mitigate drought stress and soil nutrient deficiencies, to ensure food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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14 pages, 1643 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Metabolic Responses of Leymus chinensis Seedlings to Alkali Stress
by Ge Yan, Yujie Shi, Fangfang Chen, Chunsheng Mu and Junfeng Wang
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111494 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
To elucidate the physiological and metabolic mechanism of perennial grass responses to alkali stress, we selected Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis), a salt-tolerant perennial rhizomatous species of the family Poaceae as experimental material. We conducted a pot experiment in a greenhouse and [...] Read more.
To elucidate the physiological and metabolic mechanism of perennial grass responses to alkali stress, we selected Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis), a salt-tolerant perennial rhizomatous species of the family Poaceae as experimental material. We conducted a pot experiment in a greenhouse and measured the biomass, physiological characteristics, metabonomic, and corresponding metabolites. Our results showed that alkali stress significantly inhibited seedling growth and photosynthesis, which caused ion imbalance and carbon deficiency, but the alkali stress significantly increased the nitrogen and ATP contents. The metabolic analysis indicated that alkali stress markedly enhanced the contents of nucleotides, amino acids, and organic acids, but it decreased soluble sugar contents. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle, which was related to nitrogen metabolism, was most significantly affected by alkali stress. The contents of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) involved in this pathway were also significantly increased. Our results not only verified the important roles of some amino acids and organic acids in resisting alkali stress, but also further proved that nucleotides and the GS/GOGAT cycle related to nitrogen metabolism played critical roles for seedlings in response to alkali stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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24 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics and Metabolomics Analyses Reveal High Induction of the Phenolamide Pathway in Tomato Plants Attacked by the Leafminer Tuta absoluta
by Marwa Roumani, Jacques Le Bot, Michel Boisbrun, Florent Magot, Arthur Péré, Christophe Robin, Frédérique Hilliou and Romain Larbat
Metabolites 2022, 12(6), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060484 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
Tomato plants are attacked by a variety of herbivore pests and among them, the leafminer Tuta absoluta, which is currently a major threat to global tomato production. Although the commercial tomato is susceptible to T. absoluta attacks, a better understanding of the [...] Read more.
Tomato plants are attacked by a variety of herbivore pests and among them, the leafminer Tuta absoluta, which is currently a major threat to global tomato production. Although the commercial tomato is susceptible to T. absoluta attacks, a better understanding of the defensive plant responses to this pest will help in defining plant resistance traits and broaden the range of agronomic levers that can be used for an effective integrated pest management strategy over the crop cycle. In this study, we developed an integrative approach combining untargeted metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses to characterize the local and systemic metabolic responses of young tomato plants to T. absoluta larvae herbivory. From metabolomic analyses, the tomato response appeared to be both local and systemic, with a local response in infested leaves being much more intense than in other parts of the plant. The main response was a massive accumulation of phenolamides with great structural diversity, including rare derivatives composed of spermine and dihydrocinnamic acids. The accumulation of this family of specialized metabolites was supported by transcriptomic data, which showed induction of both phenylpropanoid and polyamine precursor pathways. Moreover, our transcriptomic data identified two genes strongly induced by T. absoluta herbivory, that we functionally characterized as putrescine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases. They catalyze the biosynthesis of several phenolamides, among which is caffeoylputrescine. Overall, this study provided new mechanistic clues of the tomato/T. absoluta interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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13 pages, 2612 KiB  
Article
N-Acetylcysteine Priming Alleviates the Transplanting Injury of Machine-Transplanted Rice by Comprehensively Promoting Antioxidant and Photosynthetic Systems
by Wenjun He, Qiuyi Zhong, Bin He, Boyang Wu, Atta Mohi Ud Din, Jielyv Han, Yanfeng Ding, Zhenghui Liu, Weiwei Li, Yu Jiang and Ganghua Li
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101311 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
The stress of transplanting injury adversely affects rice growth and productivity worldwide. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the precursor of glutathione, is a potent ROS scavenger with powerful antioxidant activity. Previous studies on the application of NAC in plants mainly focused on alleviating the stress of [...] Read more.
The stress of transplanting injury adversely affects rice growth and productivity worldwide. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the precursor of glutathione, is a potent ROS scavenger with powerful antioxidant activity. Previous studies on the application of NAC in plants mainly focused on alleviating the stress of heavy metals, UV-B, herbicides, etc. However, the role of NAC in alleviating transplanting injury is still not clear. A barrel experiment was carried out to explain the mechanism of NAC regulating the transplanting injury to machine-transplanted rice during the recovery stage. The results showed that NAC priming shortened the time of initiation of tillering and increased the tiller numbers within 3 weeks after transplanting. In addition, NAC priming increased the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and sucrose content, thereby improving the dry weight at the recovery stage, especially root dry weight. At the same time, NAC priming significantly increased the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, it also regulated flavonoids and total phenols contents to reduce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, especially at the initial days after transplanting. These results suggest that NAC priming improves the tolerance of rice seedlings against transplanting injury by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant systems at initial days after transplanting, thereby promoting the accumulation of dry matter and tillering for higher yield returns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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13 pages, 1206 KiB  
Article
Non-Structural Carbohydrates, Foliar Nutrients, Yield Components and Oxidative Metabolism in Pecan Trees in Response to Foliar Applications of Growth Regulators
by Damaris Leopoldina Ojeda-Barrios, Laura Raquel Orozco-Meléndez, Raquel Cano-Medrano, Esteban Sánchez-Chávez, Rafael Ángel Parra-Quezada, Marisela Calderón-Jurado, Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar, Elizabeth Hernández-Ordoñez and Oscar Cruz-Álvarez
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050688 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
Foliar sprays of growth regulators have commercial potential for improving the performance of some of the parameters associated with alternate bearing in pecan trees. The objective was to evaluate the behaviour of alternate bearing through analysis of seasonal variations in buds and leaflets [...] Read more.
Foliar sprays of growth regulators have commercial potential for improving the performance of some of the parameters associated with alternate bearing in pecan trees. The objective was to evaluate the behaviour of alternate bearing through analysis of seasonal variations in buds and leaflets of non-structural carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch), mineral nutrients (N-total, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+), yield components (nut weight per kilogram and kernel percentage) and oxidative metabolism (superoxide dismutase, hydrogen peroxide, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and antioxidant capacity) in cv. Wichita pecan trees in response to foliar applications of gibberellic acid (50 mg L−1), calcium prohexadione (500 mg L−1) or thidiazuron (10 mg L−1). The experiment was of a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates. Foliar growth regulator (GRs) sprays help maintain the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates in the leaflets and buds between the evaluation years. With the exception of K+ (12.9 and 10.9 g kg−1) and Zn2+ (45.1 and 30.5 mg kg−1), the GRs did not show any effects on the concentrations of the foliar mineral nutrients. The results suggest foliar sprays of gibberellic acid improve the performance of parameters associated with alternate bearing, including oxidative metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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26 pages, 3642 KiB  
Article
Soil Available Phosphorus Deficiency Reduces Boll Biomass and Lint Yield by Affecting Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton-Boll Subtending Leaves
by Miao Sun, Pengcheng Li, Ning Wang, Cangsong Zheng, Xuezhen Sun, Helin Dong, Huimin Han, Weina Feng, Jingjing Shao and Yufeng Zhang
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051065 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Soil available phosphorus (AP) deficiency and shortage of phosphate rocks limit cotton production in China. Therefore, pool-culture experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 using two cotton cultivars (CCRI-79, low-P tolerant; SCRC-28, low-P sensitive) under three soil AP levels (P0: 3 [...] Read more.
Soil available phosphorus (AP) deficiency and shortage of phosphate rocks limit cotton production in China. Therefore, pool-culture experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 using two cotton cultivars (CCRI-79, low-P tolerant; SCRC-28, low-P sensitive) under three soil AP levels (P0: 3 ± 0.5, P1: 6 ± 0.5, and P2 (control): 15 ± 0.5 mg kg−1) to ascertain the effect of soil AP on boll biomass and lint yield. P0 and P1 decreased the P concentration and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of subtending leaves, thus, reducing boll biomass and lint yield. Additionally, soil AP deficiency decreased boll wall:boll, lint:boll, and lint:seed, and increased seed:boll ratio. Upper fruiting branch positions (FB9–12) had higher lint:seed ratio and proportion of the total lint yield under low soil AP. Moreover, soil AP deficiency also reduced the sucrose transformation rate (Tr) and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SuSy), while increased carbohydrate levels (soluble sugar, sucrose, and starch) and the activity of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) in the subtending leaves. The sucrose and starch contents, cy-FBPase, and SPS activities of SCRC-28 were more sensitive to low soil AP than CCRI-79. Higher Tr and activities of initial Rubisco and SuSy in the subtending leaves improved boll biomass and lint yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Metabolism under Stress)
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