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Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 29810

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
i-Sea, 33700 Bordeaux, Frane
Interests: remote sensing; coastal dynamics; human impact; river deltas

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Guest Editor
Department of Landscape Geography, Institute of Geography, Kazimierz Wielki University, 85-033 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: remote sensing; TLS; coastal processes; geomorphology; water reservoirs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal changes have become the daily constraint for a large majority of coastal human, plant and animal populations and a headache for the authorities concerned that must deal with knowledge and data that quickly become obsolete or incomplete. These changes are generally the result of natural, forced, disturbed sediment dynamics. Field monitoring of sediment stocks and movements, however, remains spatially and temporally limited. To complement the contribution of in situ measurements and facilitate systematic surveying, various strategies have recently emerged using innovative technologies in remote sensing (RS), but also by seeking proxies of any sediment imbalance at the origin or resulting from the observed coastal anomalies. Coastal change is not limited to erosion in the form of coastal retreat and/or subsidence, but it also integrates transformation of the vegetation, changes in management, protection, and occupation ways, as well as effectiveness and rapidness of the coastal resilience in the face of weather–climate imbalances in the very short (storm, cyclone, etc.) or longer term (sea level rise). 

The aim of this Special Issue is using high-frequency RS monitoring of morphological indicators of the coastline, the bathymetry changes, or the evolution of coastal vegetation, the expert community applies itself to respond to many questions on these complex interfaces at the junction of terrestrial, marine, and meteorological mechanisms and other natural constraints, to which are added those exerted by human activities. The crossing of disciplines, measurements, and datasets is in the spotlight to translate observations into expression of sediment imbalances (from stock to transit) and into levels of exposure to hazards.

In this Special Issue, various articles will shed light on cases where new RS practices for monitoring erosion and any non-ordinary changes in the coastal fringe are applied to erosion hotspots and/or sectors under very strong anthropogenic and climate pressure. The coupling of tools, disciplines, and spatial and time scales is welcome.

Dr. Manon Besset
Dr. Halina Kaczmarek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coastal changes
  • Hazards
  • Human pressure
  • Sediment dynamics
  • High-frequency monitoring
  • Land use change
  • Coastal erosion
  • Climate impact

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 12449 KiB  
Article
Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Detection of Coastal Changes along Rauk Coasts of Gotland, Baltic Sea
by Sebastian Tyszkowski, Łukasz Zbucki, Halina Kaczmarek, Filip Duszyński and Mateusz C. Strzelecki
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(6), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15061667 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 4566
Abstract
Clusters of sea stacks, called rauks, are unique rocky landforms characteristic of Baltic Sea coasts. These limestone stacks raise interest due to their spectacular morphology and yet unexplained origin. This study presents the results of seasonal observations (2019–2020) of rauk coast changes carried [...] Read more.
Clusters of sea stacks, called rauks, are unique rocky landforms characteristic of Baltic Sea coasts. These limestone stacks raise interest due to their spectacular morphology and yet unexplained origin. This study presents the results of seasonal observations (2019–2020) of rauk coast changes carried out in one of the key rauk fields on Fårö Island, Sweden. The landforms developing within three test sites were examined. At Langhammars ‘classic’ field of rauks built from homogeneous limestone (1) and a shore platform devoid of rauks, underlain clearly separate limestone slabs were explored (2); and at Gamla Hamn, the analysis covered a non-typical rauk field built of densely laminated limestone (3). We applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to obtain data needed in morphometric analyses and rauk surface change monitoring. We identified and determined contemporary erosional rates and dominant processes responsible for eroding and downwearing of rauk coasts. The observed changes were strongly associated with differences in local lithological and structural conditions—from a nearly complete absence within massive limestone rauks notches, to clear signs of erosion within limestone slabs eroded by waves, almost 1 m2 in size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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29 pages, 15221 KiB  
Article
Coupling of SWAT and DSAS Models for Assessment of Retrospective and Prospective Transformations of River Deltaic Estuaries
by Rituparna Acharyya, Anirban Mukhopadhyay and Michał Habel
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15040958 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
River deltaic estuaries are dynamic ecosystems characterised by linkages between tidal currents, river water discharge, and sediment from the basin. The present study is based on the application of remote data: multispectral satellite images, DEM, LULC (Land use and land cover), lithology, and [...] Read more.
River deltaic estuaries are dynamic ecosystems characterised by linkages between tidal currents, river water discharge, and sediment from the basin. The present study is based on the application of remote data: multispectral satellite images, DEM, LULC (Land use and land cover), lithology, and hydroclimatic factors. The standardised methodology was based on the adoption of a coupled modelling approach for this work, involving the semi-distributed catchment scale hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and the statistical Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) for (1) identifying environmental drivers of sediment transport changes of the estuarine reach; (2) analysis of retrospective changes in shoreline configuration; (3) assessing discharge and sediment dynamics of the estuarine section, and (4) generating future projection scenarios for the estuary’s state to take action for its long-term ecological stability. Our study employs a coupled modelling framework to fill the research gap for Subarnarekha deltaic estuary. Integrating outputs derived from DSAS and SWAT, a comprehensive understanding of the changes in watershed hydrology, water diversions, and damming of rivers have altered the magnitude and temporal patterns of freshwater flow and sediment, which potentially contributed to the receding of the Digha Coast shoreline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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20 pages, 6547 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Shoreline Changes along the Southwestern Coast of South Africa from 1937 to 2020 Using Varied Remote Sensing Data and Approaches
by Jennifer Murray, Elhadi Adam, Stephan Woodborne, Duncan Miller, Sifiso Xulu and Mary Evans
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020317 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4131
Abstract
Shoreline analysis in response to the rapid erosion of sandy beaches has evolved along with geospatial and computer technology; it remains an essential task for sustainable coastal management. This severe and rapid erosion has been reported at several sandy beaches worldwide, including Yzerfontein [...] Read more.
Shoreline analysis in response to the rapid erosion of sandy beaches has evolved along with geospatial and computer technology; it remains an essential task for sustainable coastal management. This severe and rapid erosion has been reported at several sandy beaches worldwide, including Yzerfontein beaches, on the southwest coast of South Africa. We determined this vulnerability from 1937 to 2020 and predicted its change by 2040 by manually delineating shoreline positions from 1937, 1960, and 1977 from aerial photographs and Landsat products between 1985 and 2020 in an automated fashion using the CoastSat toolkit and Google Earth Engine. We then integrated these datasets to calculate the extent of shoreline dynamics over the past eight decades using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Our results show that the coastline changed dynamically between 1937 and 2020, culminating in an average net erosion of 38 m, with the most extensive erosion occurring between 2015 and 2020. However, coastal projections indicate a slight change in shoreline position over the next two decades. Further studies should integrate additional high resolution remote sensing data and non-remote sensing data (e.g., field surveys) to improve our results and provide a more thorough understanding of the coastal environment and overcome some of remotely-sensed data underlying uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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20 pages, 26834 KiB  
Article
Glacial Outburst Floods Responsible for Major Environmental Shift in Arctic Coastal Catchment, Rekvedbukta, Albert I Land, Svalbard
by Aleksandra Wołoszyn, Zofia Owczarek, Iwo Wieczorek, Marek Kasprzak and Mateusz C. Strzelecki
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(24), 6325; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14246325 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
Small Arctic coastal catchments and coastal lagoon systems are some of the most vulnerable to climate change. Glacial retreat and the development of glacial lakes and drainage systems provide opportunities for hazardous events such as GLOFs. We observe that the stability of lagoons [...] Read more.
Small Arctic coastal catchments and coastal lagoon systems are some of the most vulnerable to climate change. Glacial retreat and the development of glacial lakes and drainage systems provide opportunities for hazardous events such as GLOFs. We observe that the stability of lagoons and their associated barriers are controlled by the frequency and magnitude of storms approaching the coasts, access to sediment supplies and resilience to sea-level rise. Based on multidecadal remote sensing data, we were able to identify the rate of glacial recession, the development of glacial lakes, vegetation response to climate change and a GLOF event, and shoreline and lagoon responses to the environmental shifts within the small catchment. Here we present an example of lagoon system evolution where a glacial outburst flood exerted significant control over lagoon drainage and coastal barrier stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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20 pages, 3752 KiB  
Article
Signature of Tidal Sea Level in Geomagnetic Field Variations at Island Lampedusa (Italy) Observatory
by Mauro Regi, Antonio Guarnieri, Stefania Lepidi and Domenico Di Mauro
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(24), 6203; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14246203 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
In this work, we analyze the geomagnetic field measurements collected from 2017 to 2020 at the Italian observatories of Lampedusa and Duronia (an island and inland site, respectively) for investigating a possible signature of the tidal sea water level changes on the local [...] Read more.
In this work, we analyze the geomagnetic field measurements collected from 2017 to 2020 at the Italian observatories of Lampedusa and Duronia (an island and inland site, respectively) for investigating a possible signature of the tidal sea water level changes on the local magnetic variations. We obtain the following main results: (a) evidence of the geomagnetic power spectral peaks at the solar and lunar tidal main frequencies at both sites is found; (b) by using a robust fit procedure, we find that the geomagnetic field variations at Lampedusa are strongly influenced by the lunar tidal variations in the sea level, while at Duronia, the main effects on the geomagnetic field variations are associated with diurnal solar ionospheric tides; (c) a single-station induction arrows (SSIAs) investigation reveals different behaviors between Lampedusa and Duronia. Specifically, Lampedusa shows that the induction arrows in different frequency ranges point toward different directions with different amplitudes, probably related to the surrounding regions with different water depths, while Duronia shows a persistent coast effect, with the induction arrows pointing toward the Adriatic sea; and (d) a Superposed Epoch Analysis reveals, only for Lampedusa, a close relationship between SSIAs with a frequency of >2 mHz (<1.3 mHz) and the sea level variations driven by the astronomical O1 tide, indicating an amplitude intensification of ∼4×103 (∼5×103) and an azimuthal angle increment of ∼3 ( ∼9), in correspondence to a 1 cm sea level increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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21 pages, 9552 KiB  
Article
An Improved Coastal Marine Gravity Field Based on the Mean Sea Surface Height Constraint Factor Method
by Wensong Zhang, Jianguo Yan and Fei Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(16), 4125; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14164125 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Construction of a high spatial resolution and high precision marine gravity field in coastal areas is constrained by the low quality and sparse coverage of altimetry data, except for limited shipborne and airborne gravity surveys. To address this problem, a mean sea surface [...] Read more.
Construction of a high spatial resolution and high precision marine gravity field in coastal areas is constrained by the low quality and sparse coverage of altimetry data, except for limited shipborne and airborne gravity surveys. To address this problem, a mean sea surface height constraint factor (MSSHCF) method based on the ordinary kriging method and the remove-restore technique is proposed from the perspective of interpolation. In this method, the data is standardized during the interpolation process to reduce the error and mean sea surface as variables related to the marine gravity field are added to the semi-variance function in ordinary kriging to obtain a marine gravity field with a spatial resolution of 1′ × 1′. Validation experiments show that the MSSHCF method more closely agrees with the referenced SS V28, DTU17 global marine gravity models than the ordinary kriging method. Our results were further validated against shipborne data; the accuracy of the MSSHCF method is 0.13 and 0.33 mGal higher than that of the ordinary kriging method in two experimental areas. The effects of ocean depth and offshore distance on the results were also assessed. These results show that the proposed method is more accurate than the ordinary kriging method, when the distance and depth varied. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the MSSHCF method is an innovative and feasible tool for extracting gravity fields along coastal, beach, and island areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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25 pages, 9548 KiB  
Article
Retrieval of Suspended Sediment Concentrations in the Pearl River Estuary Using Multi-Source Satellite Imagery
by Bowen Cao, Junliang Qiu, Wenxin Zhang, Xuetong Xie, Xixi Lu, Xiankun Yang and Haitao Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(16), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14163896 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Monitoring and quantifying suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in estuaries such as the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) provide crucial information for environmental processes, hydrological infrastructure, and navigation. Traditional SSC mapping based on in situ investigations lacks the spatial coverage necessitated by detailed analysis. In [...] Read more.
Monitoring and quantifying suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in estuaries such as the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) provide crucial information for environmental processes, hydrological infrastructure, and navigation. Traditional SSC mapping based on in situ investigations lacks the spatial coverage necessitated by detailed analysis. In this study, based on in situ spectral data and SSC measurements, we developed models to quantify SSC based on Landsat TM/OLI and Sentinel-2 imagery. The models were then used to map the SSC distribution in the PRE for the period 1986–2020. The results indicated that SSC in the entire PRE displayed an overall decreasing trend over the past 35 years, but an abnormal increase was also observed in shallow waters near Hengmen. Geographically, the concentration along the west coast is higher than on the east coast, and the central part of Lingding Bay underwent a slight increase. The decreased sediment output from the Pearl River Basin is the major cause of the decreasing changes in SSC. However, the natural factors and human activities such as channel dredging and the construction of artificial facilities can also disturb the spatial distribution of SSC. Regions with a significant decrease in SSC should have special concerns about retaining the PRE’s health and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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20 pages, 10809 KiB  
Article
Mapping Dynamic Turbidity Maximum Zone of the Yellow River Estuary from 38 Years of Landsat Imagery
by Maoxiang Chang, Peng Li, Yue Sun, Houjie Wang and Zhenhong Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153782 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) plays a crucial role in estuarine ecosystems, exerting effects on erosion, environment evolution and socioeconomic activities in the coastal area. However, the long-term understanding of the TMZ in large river estuary such as the Yellow River estuary is still [...] Read more.
Turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) plays a crucial role in estuarine ecosystems, exerting effects on erosion, environment evolution and socioeconomic activities in the coastal area. However, the long-term understanding of the TMZ in large river estuary such as the Yellow River estuary is still lacking. In this study, we focus on the TMZ distribution, variation and regulation mechanisms in the Yellow River estuary from different time scales. Based on time series Landsat images during the period 1984 to 2021 and Google Earth Engine (GEE), we proposed a TMZ extracting method in the Yellow River estuary to generate 322 TMZ maps. The overall accuracy of our algorithm reached 97.4%. The results show that there are clear decadal and seasonal TMZ variations during the 38-year period in the Yellow River estuary. Morphology, currents and wind speeds combined with seawater stratification have direct effects on TMZ at different time scales, while the direct impacts of tides and fluvial output of the Yellow River on TMZ are limited. In this article, the highly robust method provides a cost-effective alternative to accurately map the TMZ in global large river estuaries and systematically reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of TMZ, shedding light on the response mechanism of coastal geomorphology, marine ecological environment and biogeochemical cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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24 pages, 11991 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Moraine Cliff Spatio-Temporal Erosion on Wolin Island Using ALS Data Analysis
by Marcin Winowski, Jacek Tylkowski and Marcin Hojan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133115 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The aim of the article is to present the temporal and spatial variability of the cliff coast erosion of the Wolin Island in 2012–2020 in three time periods (2012–2015, 2015–2018, 2018–2020). The research used data from airborne laser scanning (ALS), based on which [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to present the temporal and spatial variability of the cliff coast erosion of the Wolin Island in 2012–2020 in three time periods (2012–2015, 2015–2018, 2018–2020). The research used data from airborne laser scanning (ALS), based on which DEM models were made. Based on the differences between the models, the amount of sediment that was eroded by the sea waves was determined. The conducted research showed that, in the analyzed period, the dynamics of the Wolin cliffs were characterized by high variability. The greatest erosion was observed on sandy cliffs, and the smallest on clay cliffs and on cliffs that are densely covered with vegetation. In the sediment budget studies, two seashore erosivity indicators were proposed: length-normalized sediment budget (LB) (m3/m) and area-normalized sediment budget (AB) (m3/m2). The average annual dynamics of the cliff edge erosion on the Wolin Island was found to be LB = 6.6 ± 0.3 m3/m/a, AB = 0.17 ± 0.01 m3/m2/a. The results obtained are comparable with other postglacial cliffs. The use of the differential analysis of DEM models allows for the determination of the dynamics of the cliff coast and may be used in spatial development and planning of seashore protection zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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18 pages, 3891 KiB  
Article
On the Potential for Remote Observations of Coastal Morphodynamics from Surf-Cameras
by Matthew P. Conlin, Peter N. Adams and Margaret L. Palmsten
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071706 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Recreational surf-cameras (surfcams) are ubiquitous along many coastlines, and yet are a largely untapped source of coastal morphodynamic observations. Surfcams offer broad spatial coverage and flexibility in data collection, but a method to remotely acquire ground control points (GCPs) and initial camera parameter [...] Read more.
Recreational surf-cameras (surfcams) are ubiquitous along many coastlines, and yet are a largely untapped source of coastal morphodynamic observations. Surfcams offer broad spatial coverage and flexibility in data collection, but a method to remotely acquire ground control points (GCPs) and initial camera parameter approximations is necessary to better leverage this existing infrastructure to make quantitative measurements. This study examines the efficacy of remotely monitoring coastal morphodynamics from surfcams at two sites on the Atlantic coast of Florida, U.S.A., by leveraging freely available airborne lidar observations to acquire remote-GCPs and open-source web tools for camera parameter approximations, ignoring lens distortion. Intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters are determined using a modified space resection procedure, wherein parameters are determined using iterative adjustment while fitting to remote-GCPs and initial camera parameter approximations derived from justified assumptions and Google Earth. This procedure is completed using the open-source Surf-Camera Remote Calibration Tool (SurfRCaT). The results indicate root mean squared horizontal reprojection errors at the two cameras of 3.43 m and 6.48 m. Only immobile hard structures such as piers, jetties, and boulders are suitable as remote-GCPs, and the spatial distribution of available points is a likely reason for the higher accuracy at one camera relative to the other. Additionally, lens distortion is not considered in this work. This is another important source of error and including it in the methodology is highlighted as a useful avenue for future work. Additional factors, such as initial camera parameter approximation accuracy, likely play a role as well. This work illustrates that, provided there is sufficient remote-GCP availability and small lens distortion, remote video monitoring of coastal areas with existing surfcams could provide a usable source of coastal morphodynamic observations. This is further explored with a shoreline change analysis from the higher-accuracy camera. It was found that only the largest (>6 m) magnitude shoreline changes exceed the observational uncertainty driven by shoreline mapping error and reprojection error, indicating that remotely calibrated surfcams can provide observations of seasonal or storm-driven signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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Review

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44 pages, 9514 KiB  
Review
On the Exploitation of Remote Sensing Technologies for the Monitoring of Coastal and River Delta Regions
by Qing Zhao, Jiayi Pan, Adam Thomas Devlin, Maochuan Tang, Chengfang Yao, Virginia Zamparelli, Francesco Falabella and Antonio Pepe
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102384 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5516
Abstract
Remote sensing technologies are extensively applied to prevent, monitor, and forecast hazardous risk conditions in the present-day global climate change era. This paper presents an overview of the current stage of remote sensing approaches employed to study coastal and delta river regions. The [...] Read more.
Remote sensing technologies are extensively applied to prevent, monitor, and forecast hazardous risk conditions in the present-day global climate change era. This paper presents an overview of the current stage of remote sensing approaches employed to study coastal and delta river regions. The advantages and limitations of Earth Observation technology in characterizing the effects of climate variations on coastal environments are also presented. The role of the constellations of satellite sensors for Earth Observation, collecting helpful information on the Earth’s system and its temporal changes, is emphasized. For some key technologies, the principal characteristics of the processing chains adopted to obtain from the collected raw data added-value products are summarized. Emphasis is put on studying various disaster risks that affect coastal and megacity areas, where heterogeneous and interlinked hazard conditions can severely affect the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Observation on Coastal Change)
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