Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020) | Viewed by 30840

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering & Economics (DIIIE), University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: hybrid-electric vehicle; vehicle behavior modeling; battery; energy management

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

ICE-based hybrid propulsion systems still appear to be one of the most promising technologies available to face the transition towards the sustainability of the mobility sector, especially in extra-urban environments and for heavy-duty applications. Many off-road propulsion applications could benefit substantially from the definition of low-environmental-impact and low-energy-consumption hybrid propulsion systems. From this point of view, the hybridization of electric propulsion systems with lower energy vectors (e.g., CNG, LMG, LPG, hydrogen, and biofuels) could introduce further benefits both on a tank-to-wheels (TTW) and on a well-to-wheels (WTW) basis.

Hybridized propulsion systems, however, introduce one or more freedom degrees to be optimized. Optimizing rules and algorithms should be differently designed considering the functional connections between the different available fuel sources (e.g., series, split, parallel hybrids), the sizing and characteristics of conventional or innovative on-board energy storage systems (ESSs), as well as the various possible applications and the foreseen use cycles of the vehicles. All this considered, a strong effort of the scientific community is still needed in this sector. This Special Issue therefore invites original papers on all aspects connected to the control and optimization of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrains. In more detail, expected contributions for the Special Issue could for example regard (but are not limited to):

  • Control and optimization algorithms for hybrid-electric vehicle powertrains;
  • Modeling and prediction of powertrain energetic and environmental behavior;
  • Optimal powertrain design;
  • Conventional and innovative energy storage systems (ESSs): their modeling, management, and control;
  • Expected well-to-wheel (WTW) and tank-to-wheel (TTW) vehicle performances;
  • Regenerative braking strategies and control.

Prof. Dr. Carlo Villante
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • hybrid propulsion
  • vehicle performances
  • regenerative braking
  • vehicle consumption
  • vehicular emissions
  • WTW and TTW performances

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Speed Regulation Control for an Integrated Motor-Transmission System under External Disturbances
by Wei Huang, Jianfeng Huang and Chengliang Yin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11030053 - 2 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
Precise motor speed regulation control is essential to achieve a good gear shifting quality of the integrated motor-transmission (IMT) system, in which the relative speed between outgoing shaft and the gearwheel to be engaged can be eliminated directly through regulation of the motor [...] Read more.
Precise motor speed regulation control is essential to achieve a good gear shifting quality of the integrated motor-transmission (IMT) system, in which the relative speed between outgoing shaft and the gearwheel to be engaged can be eliminated directly through regulation of the motor speed. The speed regulation control confronts the difficulty that there exist external disturbances on the motor shaft, like the unknown load torque arised from bearing friction, oil shearing and oil churning, etc. To deal with these disturbances, a robust speed regulation controller combined a nominal proportional control and integral sliding mode control is proposed. The former is designed to achieve a good speed tracking performance and the latter provides functionality of disturbances rejection. The effects of different controller parameters for the robust controller design are assessed via simulations. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the combined control scheme in practical engineering use, experiments are carried out on a test bench with a real IMT powertrain system. Results indicate that the proposed approach can attain a rapid and smooth speed regulation process with a simple controller structure and good robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains)
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14 pages, 5458 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Design and Experimental Validation of a Nonlinear Controller for Energy Storage System Used in HEV
by Zakariae El Idrissi, Hassan El Fadil, Fatima Zahra Belhaj, Abdellah Lassioui, Mostapha Oulcaid and Khawla Gaouzi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11030049 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
This work presented a nonlinear control for a reversible power buck–boost converter (BBC) in order to control energy storage in a supercapacitor (SC) used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The aim was to control a power converter in order to satisfy the following [...] Read more.
This work presented a nonlinear control for a reversible power buck–boost converter (BBC) in order to control energy storage in a supercapacitor (SC) used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The aim was to control a power converter in order to satisfy the following two requirements: (i) perfect tracking of SC current to its reference signal and (ii) asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. The two objectives were achieved using an integral sliding mode control. In order to validate the proposed approach, an experimental prototype was built. The controller was integrated into dSPACE prototyping systems using the DS1202 card. It was clearly shown, using formal analysis, simulation, and experimental results, that the designed controller metall the objectives, namely, the stability of the system and the control of the current at its reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains)
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20 pages, 3773 KiB  
Article
Study and Analysis of a Multi-Mode Power Split Hybrid Transmission
by Xiaojiang Chen, Jiajia Jiang, Lipeng Zheng, Haifeng Tang and Xiaofeng Chen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020046 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4933
Abstract
A two-motor power-split dedicated hybrid transmission (DHT) with two planetary gears is proposed for the applications of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in HEV (PHEV). The proposed DHT can provide electronically controlled continuous variable transmission (eCVT) with two different gear ratios. One [...] Read more.
A two-motor power-split dedicated hybrid transmission (DHT) with two planetary gears is proposed for the applications of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in HEV (PHEV). The proposed DHT can provide electronically controlled continuous variable transmission (eCVT) with two different gear ratios. One of two electric motors is employed to act as a speeder for splitting the input power of internal combustion engine (ICE) and the other acts as a torquer to assist ICE for boosting. Assisted by an electric motor, ICE can always be enhanced to operate at its efficient area for the benefits of fuel economy improvement. The maximum ICE torque is viable to be mechanically transmitted to vehicle wheels from standstill with two different gear ratios. This feature can help reduce the traction motor torque and power sizing significantly. The paper presents detailed theoretical analyses of the proposed eCVT. Comprehensive simulation demonstrations for a pickup truck HEV application are given to address that the vehicle fuel consumption can be considerably reduced without compromising acceleration performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains)
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14 pages, 2762 KiB  
Article
Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Effects of Vehicle Weight, Hybridization Ratio and Ambient Temperature
by Heejung Jung
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020031 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6765
Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are evolving rapidly since the introduction of Toyota Prius into the market in 1997. As the world needs more fuel-efficient vehicles to mitigate climate change, the role of HEVs and PHEVs are becoming [...] Read more.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are evolving rapidly since the introduction of Toyota Prius into the market in 1997. As the world needs more fuel-efficient vehicles to mitigate climate change, the role of HEVs and PHEVs are becoming ever more important. While fuel economies of HEVs and PHEVs are superior to those of internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, they are partially powered by batteries and therefore they resemble characteristics of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) such as dependence of fuel economy on ambient temperatures. It is also important to understand how different extent of hybridization (a.k.a., hybridization ratio) affects fuel economy under various driving conditions. In addition, it is of interest to understand how HEVs and PHEVs compare with BEVs at a similar vehicle weight. This study investigated the relationship between vehicle mass and vehicle performance parameters, mainly fuel economy and driving range of PHEVs focused on 2018 and 2019 model years using the test data available from fuel economy website of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Previous studies relied on modeling to understand mass impact on fuel economy for HEV as there were not enough number of HEVs in the market to draw a trendline at the time. The study also investigated the effect of ambient temperature for HEVs and PHEVs and kinetic energy recovery of the regenerative braking using the vehicle testing data for model year 2013 and 2015 from Idaho National Lab (INL). The current study assesses current state-of-art for PHEVs. It also provides analysis of experimental results for validation of vehicle dynamic and other models for PHEVs and HEVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains)
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Review

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23 pages, 5577 KiB  
Review
Toward Group Applications: A Critical Review of the Classification Strategies of Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Ran Li, Haonian Zhang, Wenrui Li, Xu Zhao and Yongqin Zhou
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11030058 - 30 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4138
Abstract
To solve the problems of the decreased reliability and safety of battery pack due to the inconsistency between batteries after single batteries are grouped is of great significance to find an appropriate sorting method of single batteries. This study systematically reviews the available [...] Read more.
To solve the problems of the decreased reliability and safety of battery pack due to the inconsistency between batteries after single batteries are grouped is of great significance to find an appropriate sorting method of single batteries. This study systematically reviews the available literature on battery sorting applications for battery researchers and users. These methods can be roughly divided into three types: direct measurement, sorting based on the model, and sorting based on the material chemistry of batteries. Among them, direct measurement is about the direct measurement of the state parameters of batteries using some professional instruments or testing tools to sort and group batteries with similar or close parameters. Sorting based on the model classifies batteries into groups by establishing a battery equivalent model and carrying out model identification and parameter estimation with machine learning or artificial intelligence algorithm. Sorting based on the material chemistry of batteries is to explore some characteristics related to the chemical mechanism inside the battery. On the basis of reading extensive literature, the methods for classification of battery are provided with an in-depth explanation, and each corresponding strengths and weaknesses of these methods are analyzed. Finally, the future developments of advanced sorting algorithms and batteries prospect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains)
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17 pages, 1996 KiB  
Review
Review on the State of Charge Estimation Methods for Electric Vehicle Battery
by Mingyue Zhang and Xiaobin Fan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010023 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 9110
Abstract
Battery technology has been one of the bottlenecks in electric cars. Whether it is in theory or in practice, the research on battery management is extremely important, especially for battery state-of-charge estimation. In fact, the battery has a strong time-varying and non-linear properties, [...] Read more.
Battery technology has been one of the bottlenecks in electric cars. Whether it is in theory or in practice, the research on battery management is extremely important, especially for battery state-of-charge estimation. In fact, the battery has a strong time-varying and non-linear properties, which are extremely complex. Therefore, accurately estimating the state of charge is a challenging task. This paper reviews various representative patents and papers related to the state of charge estimation methods for an electric vehicle battery. According to their theoretical and experimental characteristics, the estimation methods were classified into three groups: the traditional methods based on the battery experiments, the modern methods based on control theory, and other methods based on the innovative ideas, especially focusing on the algorithms based on control theory. The results imply that the algorithms based on control theory, especially intelligent algorithms, are the focus of research in this field. The future development direction is to establish a rich database, improve hardware technology, come up with a much better battery model, and give full play to the advantages of each algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Hybrid-electric Vehicle Powertrains)
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