Special Issue "Advances in Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Marine and Coastal Regions"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alessandro Bergamasco
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Marine Science ISMAR, Italian National Research Council, Venice, Italy
Interests: coastal oceanography; marine ecology; environmental assessment; biodiversity; integrated coastal zone management; transitional waters
Assoc. Prof. Hong Quan Nguyen
Website
Guest Editor
Center of Water Management and Climate Change, Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh city
Interests: Eco-hydrology, socio-hydrology, socio-ecological resilience, urban flood management, wastewater loading capacity
Dr. Gabriella Caruso
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Institute of Polar Sciences (ISP), National Research Council, Spianata S. Raineri, 98122 Messina, Italy
Interests: marine microbiology; microbial ecology; environmental quality; marine monitoring; biogeochemical cycles; microbial enzymes; microbial viability; substrate colonization; plastisphere; bacterial pathogens; rapid detection methods; fish microflora and physiology; temperate and polar ecosystems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Qianguo Xing
Website
Guest Editor
Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Reserach, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, China
University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: Remote sensing and assessment of environmental quality; GIS of the offshore coastal area; Simulation of ecological processes in the coastal-offshore area; Environmental assessment and planning; Coastal area disasters
Dr. Eleonora Carol
Website
Guest Editor
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Interests: Groundwater geochemistry, Coastal wetlands, Industrial pollution monitoring, Coastal aquifers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims at the promotion of a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the quality of aquatic ecosystems, with a particular focus on the transitional environments where marine and terrestrial habitats interlink. Research/review papers jointly dealing with coastal oceanography, hydrogeology, biogeochemistry and marine ecology are of interest, although studies on surface waters (rivers, lakes, etc.) in coastal regions are also welcomed. Papers concerning issues related to the assessment of the ecological status of the water body and related habitats, short-term or long-term comparative evaluation, resilience and vulnerability to expected changes (anthropogenic pressures, climate fluctuations) are envisaged, with contents spanning from field studies encompassing innovative technologies (e.g., automatic systems, buoys and fixed points of observation, remote sensing) to promising approaches and methodologies (e.g., indicators, microbiology, structural and functional changes of biodiversity, link between quality and climate-related local changes) to modeling. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a invaluable reference for coastal zone managers and practitioners.

Dr. Alessandro Bergamasco
Assoc. Prof. Hong Quan Nguyen
Dr. Gabriella Caruso
Prof. Dr. Qianguo Xing
Dr. Eleonora Carol 
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water quality
  • monitoring
  • coastal regions
  • transitional environments
  • environmental changes
  • coastal zone management

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Model for Chlorophyll-a Concentration Retrieval in Coastal Waters Based on UAV-Borne Hyperspectral Imagery: A Case Study in Qingdao, China
Water 2020, 12(10), 2769; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102769 - 05 Oct 2020
Abstract
Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is an objective biological indicator, which reflects the nutritional status of coastal waters. However, the turbid coastal waters pose challenges to the application of existing Chl-a remote sensing models of case II waters. Based on the bio-optical models, we analyzed the [...] Read more.
Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is an objective biological indicator, which reflects the nutritional status of coastal waters. However, the turbid coastal waters pose challenges to the application of existing Chl-a remote sensing models of case II waters. Based on the bio-optical models, we analyzed the suppression of coastal total suspended matter (TSM) on the Chl-a optical characteristics and developed an improved model using the imagery from a hyper-spectrometer mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The new model was applied to estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of Chl-a concentration in coastal waters of Qingdao on 17 December 2018, 22 March 2019, and 20 July 2019. Compared with the previous models, the correlation coefficients (R2) of Chl-a concentrations retrieved by the new model and in situ measurements were greatly improved, proving that the new model shows a better performance in retrieving coastal Chl-a concentration. On this basis, the spatiotemporal variations of Chl-a in Qingdao coastal waters were analyzed, showing that the spatial variation is mainly related to the TSM concentration, wind waves, and aquaculture, and the temporal variation is mainly influenced by the sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), and human activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Variation of Dissolved Oxygen in the Southeast of the Pearl River Estuary
Water 2020, 12(9), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092475 - 03 Sep 2020
Abstract
Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in estuaries is highly variable at different spatial and temporal scales, which is affected by physical, chemical and biological processes. This study analyzed the spatial–temporal distributions of dissolved oxygen concentration and bottom hypoxia in the southeast of the Pearl [...] Read more.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in estuaries is highly variable at different spatial and temporal scales, which is affected by physical, chemical and biological processes. This study analyzed the spatial–temporal distributions of dissolved oxygen concentration and bottom hypoxia in the southeast of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using monthly water quality monitoring and hydrographic data covering the period 2000–2017. The seasonal spatial–temporal variation of DO concentration was studied using various methods, such as rotated empirical orthogonal functions, harmonic analysis, and correlation analysis. The results showed that DO stratification was significant in summer, but it was not distinct in winter, during which DO concentration peaked. DO stratification exhibited a significantly positive correlation with water stratification. In the south and west of Hong Kong (SHK and WHK, respectively), DO concentration fields exhibited distinct seasonal changes in the recent 18 years. In SHK, the main periods of the surface DO variation were 24, 12, and 6 months, whereas the main period was 12 months in WHK. The main period of the bottom DO variation was 12 months in both SHK and WHK. In SHK, the spatial–temporal variations in surface and bottom DO were highly related to the variations of salinity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and active phosphorus, and the variation of surface DO was also connected to the variation of temperature and chlorophyll a. In WHK, the variations in surface and bottom DO were highly related to the variations of salinity and temperature, and the variation of surface DO was also connected to the variation of DIN. The river discharge and wind had a different important influence on the temporal variability of DO in WHK and SHK. These findings suggested that the variations of DO may be controlled by coupled physical and biochemical processes in the southeast of PRE. From 2000 to 2017, bottom hypoxia in the southeast of PRE occurred in the summers of 7 years. SHK appeared to be more vulnerable to hypoxia than WHK. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microcystis Bloom in an Urban Lake after River Water Diversion—A Case Study
Water 2020, 12(6), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061811 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
To improve the water quality of Lake Yuehu, a water diversion from the Han River was conducted in July 2008. However, an unexpected Microcystis bloom occurred in the lake after water introduction. Water and sediment samples were collected from Lake Yuehu and the [...] Read more.
To improve the water quality of Lake Yuehu, a water diversion from the Han River was conducted in July 2008. However, an unexpected Microcystis bloom occurred in the lake after water introduction. Water and sediment samples were collected from Lake Yuehu and the variation of chemical and biochemical parameters, as well as the phytoplankton community, were analyzed during the water diversion to assess its effect and to clarify the mechanism leading to the Microcystis bloom. The nitrogen (N) concentration was increased and phosphorus (P) concentration decreased in Lake Yuehu after receiving water from the Han River, which had a high loading of N and a low loading of P. These conditions may benefit the growth and dominance of non-N2 fixing Microcystis, as it may not have suffered from P limitation during our study because it did not produce extracellular phosphatase, which worked as an indicator of P deficiency, as evidenced by the in situ enzyme-labelled fluorescence. Notably, the sediment Fe (OOH)~P content significantly decreased in Lake Yuehu; this pulsed release of P from the sediment might have sustained the Microcystis bloom. Based on our results, algal blooms may occur as a consequence of conducting water diversion projects to improve water quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantile Analysis of Long-Term Trends of Near-Surface Chlorophyll-a in the Pearl River Plume
Water 2020, 12(6), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061662 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The concentration of chlorophyll-a (CHL) is an important proxy for the amount of phytoplankton biomass in the ocean. Characterizing the variability of CHL in the Pearl River Plume (PRP) is therefore of great importance for the understanding of the changes in oceanic [...] Read more.
The concentration of chlorophyll-a (CHL) is an important proxy for the amount of phytoplankton biomass in the ocean. Characterizing the variability of CHL in the Pearl River Plume (PRP) is therefore of great importance for the understanding of the changes in oceanic productivity in the coastal region. By applying quantile regression analysis on 21-year (1998–2018) near-surface CHL data from satellite observations, this study investigated the long-term trend of CHL in the PRP. The results show decreasing trends (at an order of 10−2 mg m−3 year−1) for all percentiles of the CHL in the PRP, suggesting a decrease in productivity in the past two decades. The trends differ fundamentally from those in the open regions of the northern South China Sea with mixed signs and small magnitudes (10−4 mg m−3 year−1). The magnitudes of the trends in high quantiles (>80th) are larger than those in low quantiles (<50th) in the PRP, indicative of a decrease in the variance of the CHL. The area with apparent decreasing trends is restricted to the PRP in summer and extends to the entire coastal region in winter. This decrease in CHL is possibly attributed to the decrease in nutrient input from the river runoff and the weakening of wind-forced mixing rather than the changes in sea surface temperature. This study extends our knowledge on the variability of CHL in the PRP and provides references to the investigation of the changes of the coastal ecological environment. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Title: Using satellite remote sensing to study the effect of sand excavation on the suspended sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge region
Authors: Fenfen Liu 1, Shilin Tang 2,3,*, Haibin Ye 2,3 and Tonghui Zhang 2,4
Affiliation: 1 School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Ocean Remote Sensing, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
3 Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou)
4 Guangdong Ocean and Fishery Environment Monitoring and Forecasting Center, Guangzhou 510222, China
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +86-20-89020869
Abstract: The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge crosses the Pearl River Estuary and is the largest bridge and tunnel project in the world. The suspended sediment generated by upstream sand excavation was doubted to have a significant impact on the suspended sediment in the tunnel region. In this paper, we assessed the impact of upstream sand excavation on the suspended sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge construction area using Landsat OLI, ETM+ and TM data. Regional suspended sediment algorithms were developed for Landsat using a symbolic regression method based on data from 25 cruises in the study area from 2003 to 2014. A band shift was conducted on the remote sensing reflectance data from Landsat ETM+ and OLI to produce a time series of suspended sediment that was internally consistent with that of Landsat TM data. The suspended sediment distribution was extracted and used to compare two different conditions, with and without sand excavation. The correlation of suspended sediment in different regions in the surrounding waters, including the correlation between the construction regions and the sand excavation regions, was calculated. Our results indicate that the sand excavation in the upstream region of the Pearl River Estuary has limited impact on the surface suspended sediment concentrations in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge tunnel area.
Keywords: suspended sediment; symbolic regression;Landsat; sand excavation

2. Title: Tracking the Spatio-temporal Distribution of Floating Plastics from Satellite Remote Sensing in Coastal Vietnam
Authors: Leon T. Hauser, Nguyen Hong Quan et al.

3. Title: Discovering Trends, Changes and Patterns in 15 Years of Water Quality Data of the Thi Vai Estuary in South Vietnam
Authors: Malte Lorenz, Hong Quan Nguyen, Stephanie Zeunert, Huyen Le, Günter Meon

4. Title: Comparison of Statistical Regression and Artificial Neural Network Models for Estimating Nitrogen, Phosphorus, COD and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Eutrophic Rivers Using in Situ UV-Vis Spectroscopy

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