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Special Issue "Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Gang Pan

1. School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, UK
2. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0044 0115 848 5348
Interests: integrated water, energy and food security; lake restoration; harmful algal blooms; oxygen nanobubbles; phosphorus and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling; heavy metals; sediment remediation
Guest Editor
Prof. Lirong Song

Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0086 027 68780806
Interests: lake ecology; harmful algal blooms; algae biology and algae physiology; cyanobacteria treatment and reutilization
Guest Editor
Prof. Qiuwen Chen

Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0086 025 85829765
Interests: lake, river and reservoir management; ecological hydraulics; eutrophication control; lake restoration
Guest Editor
Dr. Tao Lyu

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0044 0115 848 5219
Interests: lake restoration; wastewater treatment, constructed wetland; emergent pollutants; organic pollutants; bioremediation; environmental chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are one of the most notorious consequences of eutrophication in natural waters, e.g., lakes and rivers, and pose serious threats to water quality, human health, economic development, ecological balance, landscape aesthetics, and social stability. Both external loading of pollutants from anthrophonic discharge and internal loading of pollutants from sediments are expected to further increase HAB occurrence and provide continuous pressure on river and lake ecosystems over the coming decades. Thus, it is urgent to draw the attention of researchers around the world to make great efforts on lake and river restoration to eliminate HAB threats.

Lake and river restoration heavily depends on integrated basin management and technical developments. An integrated water restoration management aims to promote the coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Nutrient recovery, e.g., phosphorous and residue biomass, e.g., algae biomass, are expected to be valuable resources to promote agricultural sustainability and aquatic ecology. Long-term monitoring of water quality and ecological responses, as well as whole water experiments, are necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of innovative restoration methods.

This Special Issue of  Water aims to compile the latest advances in lake and river restoration technology, in terms of advanced materials, applications, evaluation, and management. We foresee that the papers in this Special Issue will significantly contribute to eutrophication control, natural water sustainability, and ecological restoration.

Prof. Gang Pan
Prof. Lirong Song
Prof. Qiuwen Chen
Dr. Tao Lyu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lake and river restoration: Methods, evaluation, and monitoring
  • Harmful algal blooms: Prediction, prevention, and control
  • Internal loads control and sediment remediation
  • Natural water quality control and management
  • Nutrients recovery for integrated water, energy and food security

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Reducing the Phytoplankton Biomass to Promote the Growth of Submerged Macrophytes by Introducing Artificial Aquatic Plants in Shallow Eutrophic Waters
Water 2019, 11(7), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071370
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
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Abstract
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur in shallow eutrophic lakes and usually cause the decline of submerged vegetation. Therefore, artificial aquatic plants (AAPs) were introduced into enclosures in the eutrophic Dianchi Lake to investigate whether or not they could reduce cyanobacterial blooms and promote [...] Read more.
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur in shallow eutrophic lakes and usually cause the decline of submerged vegetation. Therefore, artificial aquatic plants (AAPs) were introduced into enclosures in the eutrophic Dianchi Lake to investigate whether or not they could reduce cyanobacterial blooms and promote the growth of submerged macrophytes. On the 60th day after the AAPs were installed, the turbidity, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and the cell density of phytoplankton (especially cyanobacteria) of the treated enclosures were significantly reduced as compared with the control enclosures. The adsorption and absorption of the subsequently formed periphyton biofilms attached to the AAPs effectively decreased nutrient levels in the water. Moreover, the microbial diversity and structure in the water changed with the development of periphyton biofilms, showing that the dominant planktonic algae shifted from Cyanophyta to Chlorophyta. The biodiversity of both planktonic and attached bacterial communities in the periphyton biofilm also gradually increased with time, and were higher than those of the control enclosures. The transplanted submerged macrophyte (Elodea nuttallii) in treated enclosures recovered effectively and reached 50% coverage in one month while those in the control enclosures failed to grow. The application of AAPs with incubated periphyton presents an environmentally-friendly and effective solution for reducing nutrients and controlling the biomass of phytoplankton, thereby promoting the restoration of submerged macrophytes in shallow eutrophic waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Priority Pollutants in Water and Sediments of a River for Control Basing on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure
Water 2019, 11(6), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061267
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Understanding the drivers of macroinvertebrate community structure is fundamental for adequately controlling pollutants and managing ecosystems under global change. In this study, the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates, as well as their chemical parameters, were investigated quarterly from August 2014 to April [...] Read more.
Understanding the drivers of macroinvertebrate community structure is fundamental for adequately controlling pollutants and managing ecosystems under global change. In this study, the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates, as well as their chemical parameters, were investigated quarterly from August 2014 to April 2015 in four reaches of the Huai River basin (HRB). The self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were simultaneously applied to identify the main factors structuring the benthic community. The results showed that the benthic community structure was always dominated by gastropoda and insecta over seasons and presented obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity along different pollution levels. The insects were always the top contributors to number density of the benthic community, except for the summer, and the biomass was mainly characterized by mollusca in all seasons. Statistical analysis indicated that TN and NH3-N in water, as well as Hg, As, Cd, and Zn in sediments, were the dominant factors structuring the community, which determined the importance of sediment heavy metal concentrations in explaining the benthic community composition in comparison with other factors. These major factors should be given priority in the process of river pollutant control, which might be rated as a promising way to scientifically improve river health management and ecological restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Local Soil (MLS) Technology for Harmful Algal Bloom Control, Sediment Remediation, and Ecological Restoration
Water 2019, 11(6), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061123
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
Harmful algal blooms (HABs), eutrophication, and internal pollutant sources from sediment, represent serious problems for public health, water quality, and ecological restoration worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that Modified Local Soil (MLS) technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to flocculate the HABs [...] Read more.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs), eutrophication, and internal pollutant sources from sediment, represent serious problems for public health, water quality, and ecological restoration worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that Modified Local Soil (MLS) technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to flocculate the HABs from water and settle them onto sediment. Additionally, MLS capping treatment can reduce the resuspension of algae flocs from the sediment, and convert the algal cells, along with any excessive nutrients in-situ into fertilisers for the restoration of submerged macrophytes in shallow water systems. Furthermore, the capping treatment using oxygen nanobubble-MLS materials can also mitigate sediment anoxia, causing a reduction in the release of internal pollutants, such as nutrients and greenhouse gases. This paper reviews and quantifies the main features of MLS by investigating the effect of MLS treatment in five pilot-scale whole-pond field experiments carried out in Lake Tai, South China, and in Cetian Reservoir in Datong city, North China. Data obtained from field monitoring showed that the algae-dominated waters transform into a macrophyte-dominated state within four months of MLS treatment in shallow water systems. The sediment-water nutrient fluxes were substantially reduced, whilst water quality (TN, TP, and transparency) and biodiversity were significantly improved in the treatment ponds, compared to the control ponds within a duration ranging from one day to three years. The sediment anoxia remediation effect by oxygen nanobubble-MLS treatment may further contribute to deep water hypoxia remediation and eutrophication control. Combined with the integrated management of external loads control, MLS technology can provide an environmentally friendly geo-engineering method to accelerate ecological restoration and control eutrophication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Phased Assessment of Restoration Alternatives to Achieve Phosphorus Water Quality Targets for Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA
Water 2019, 11(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020327
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Achieving total phosphorus (TP) total maximum daily loads (TMDL) for Lake Okeechobee (Florida, FL, USA), a large freshwater lake, is a key component of the greater Everglades ecosystem restoration and sustainability of south Florida. This study was aimed at identification of a cost-effective [...] Read more.
Achieving total phosphorus (TP) total maximum daily loads (TMDL) for Lake Okeechobee (Florida, FL, USA), a large freshwater lake, is a key component of the greater Everglades ecosystem restoration and sustainability of south Florida. This study was aimed at identification of a cost-effective restoration alternative using four TP control strategies—Best Management Practices (BMPs), Dispersed Water Management (DWM), Wetland Restoration, and Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs)—to achieve a flow-weighted mean TP concentration of 40 µg/L at lake inflow points, through a phased scenario analysis approach. The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate flow and phosphorus dynamics. The 10-year (1998–2007) ‘Base’ scenario calibration indicated ‘acceptable’ to ‘good’ performance with simulated annual average flows and TP load of 2.64 × 109 m3 and 428.6 metric tons, respectively. Scenario results showed that TP load reduction without STAs would be around 11–40% with respect to Base compared to over 75% reduction requirement to achieve TMDL, indicating STAs as a necessary component to achieve restoration. The most cost-effective alternative to achieve TP target consisted of implementation of nutrient management BMPs, continuation of existing DWM projects, and the construction of ~200 km2 of STAs for a total project cost of US $4.26 billion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Phosphate Removal from Water by Honeycomb-Like Microporous Lanthanum-Chitosan Magnetic Spheres
Water 2018, 10(11), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111659
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The removal of phosphate in water is crucial and effective for control of eutrophication, and adsorption is one of the most effective treatment processes. In this study, microporous lanthanum-chitosan magnetic spheres were successfully synthetized and used for the removal of phosphate in water. [...] Read more.
The removal of phosphate in water is crucial and effective for control of eutrophication, and adsorption is one of the most effective treatment processes. In this study, microporous lanthanum-chitosan magnetic spheres were successfully synthetized and used for the removal of phosphate in water. The characterization results show that the dispersion of lanthanum oxide is improved because of the porous properties of the magnetic spheres. Moreover, the contact area and active sites between lanthanum oxide and phosphate were increased due to the presence of many honeycomb channels inside the magnetic spheres. In addition, the maximum adsorption capacity of the Langmuir model was 27.78 mg P·g−1; and the adsorption kinetics were in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. From the results of thermodynamic analysis, the phosphate adsorption process of lanthanum-chitosan magnetic spheres was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. In conditional tests, the optimal ratio of lanthanum/chitosan was 1.0 mmol/g. The adsorption capacity of as-prepared materials increased with the augmentation of the dosage of the adsorbent and the decline of pH value. The co-existing anions, Cl and NO3 had little effect on adsorption capacity to phosphate, while CO32− exhibited an obviously negative influence on the adsorption capacity of this adsorbent. In general, owing to their unique hierarchical porous structures, high-adsorption capacity and low cost, lanthanum-chitosan magnetic spheres are potentially applicable in eutrophic water treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dredging Season on Sediment Properties and Nutrient Fluxes across the Sediment–Water Interface in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, China
Water 2018, 10(11), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111606
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
The influence of dredging season on sediment properties and nutrient fluxes across the sediment–water interface remains unknown. This study collected sediment cores from two sites with different pollution levels in Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake (China). The samples were used in simulation experiments designed [...] Read more.
The influence of dredging season on sediment properties and nutrient fluxes across the sediment–water interface remains unknown. This study collected sediment cores from two sites with different pollution levels in Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake (China). The samples were used in simulation experiments designed to elucidated the effects of dredging on internal loading in different seasons. The results showed that dredging the upper 30 cm of sediment could effectively reduce the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in the sediments. Total biological activity in the dredged sediment was weaker (p < 0.05) than in the undredged sediment in all seasons for both the Inner Bay and Outer Bay, but the effect of 30-cm dredging on sediment oxygen demand was negligible. Dredging had a significant controlling effect on phosphorus release in both the Inner Bay and Outer Bay, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) fluxes from the dredged cores were generally lower (p < 0.05) than from the undredged cores. In contrast, NH4+-N fluxes from the dredged cores were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the undredged cores in all seasons for both sites, this indicates short-term risk of NH4+-N release after dredging, and this risk is greatest in seasons with higher temperatures, especially for the Inner Bay. Dredging had a limited effect on NO2-N and NO3-N fluxes at both sites. These results suggest that dredging could be a useful approach for decreasing internal loading in Taihu Lake, and that the seasons with low temperature (non-growing season) are suitable for performing dredging projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Optimal Width and Mechanism of Riparian Buffers for Storm Water Nutrient Removal in the Chinese Eutrophic Lake Chaohu Watershed
Water 2018, 10(10), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101489
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Riparian buffers play an important role in intercepting nutrients entering lakes from non-point runoffs. In spite of its ecological significance, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms of riparian buffers or their optimal width. In this study, we examined nutrient removal efficiency, including [...] Read more.
Riparian buffers play an important role in intercepting nutrients entering lakes from non-point runoffs. In spite of its ecological significance, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms of riparian buffers or their optimal width. In this study, we examined nutrient removal efficiency, including the quantity of nutrients and water quality, in the littoral zone of different types of riparian buffers in the watershed around eutrophic Lake Chaohu (China), and estimated the optimal width for different types of riparian buffers for effective nutrient removal. In general, a weak phosphorus (P) adsorption ability and nitrification-denitrification potential in soil resulted in a far greater riparian buffer demand than before in Lake Chaohu, which may be attributed to the soil degradation and simplification of cover vegetation. In detail, the width was at least 23 m (grass/forest) and 130 m (grass) for total P (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) to reach 50% removal efficiency, respectively, indicating a significantly greater demand for TN removal than that for TP. Additionally, wetland and grass/forest riparian buffers were more effective for TP removal, which was attributed to a high P sorption maximum (Qmax) and a low equilibrium P concentration (EPC0), respectively. The high potential nitrification rate (PNR) and potential denitrification rate (PDR) were responsible for the more effective TN removal efficiencies in grass riparian buffers. The nutrient removal efficiency of different types of riparian buffers was closely related with nutrient level in adjacent littoral zones around Lake Chaohu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
First-Principles Study on the Migration of Heavy Metal Ions in Ice-Water Medium from Ulansuhai Lake
Water 2018, 10(9), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091149
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
Energy is a fundamental driver that causes material movement. It is important to discover changes in energy by studying the internal mechanism of pollutant migration between system components during the freezing process. To explore the migration mechanism of heavy metal ions (HMIs) from [...] Read more.
Energy is a fundamental driver that causes material movement. It is important to discover changes in energy by studying the internal mechanism of pollutant migration between system components during the freezing process. To explore the migration mechanism of heavy metal ions (HMIs) from ice to water in a lake, we carried out a laboratory freezing experiment and simulated the distribution and migration of HMIs (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Hg) under different conditions. Then, we analyzed the use of energy by first-principle calculations. The results showed that HMIs are more stable in an aqueous environment than in an ice environment. For the same HMI, the binding energy in water is smaller than that in ice. Hence, the HMIs migrated from ice to water as the lake was freezing. The ability of different kinds of heavy metals to migrate from ice to water is related to their binding energy in ice. The concentrations of HMIs in ice are positively correlated with their binding energies. This study investigated the migration characteristics and mechanisms of HMIs in the process of lake freezing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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