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Open AccessArticle

Modified Local Soil (MLS) Technology for Harmful Algal Bloom Control, Sediment Remediation, and Ecological Restoration

by Gang Pan 1,2,3,4,5,6,*, Xiaojun Miao 1,2, Lei Bi 1, Honggang Zhang 1, Lei Wang 1, Lijing Wang 1,5, Zhibin Wang 1,5, Jun Chen 1,2, Jafar Ali 1,2, Minmin Pan 1,6,7, Jing Zhang 1, Bin Yue 3,4,8 and Tao Lyu 3,4,*
1
Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
School of Animal, Rural, and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Brackenhurt Campus, Nottinghamshire NG25 0QF, UK
4
Centre of Integrated Water-Energy-Food studies (iWEF), Nottingham Trent University, Nottinghamshire NG25 0QF, UK
5
Beijing Advanced Sciences and Innovation Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101407, China
6
Sino-Danish College of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
7
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2899 Lyngby, Denmark
8
College of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061123
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
Harmful algal blooms (HABs), eutrophication, and internal pollutant sources from sediment, represent serious problems for public health, water quality, and ecological restoration worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that Modified Local Soil (MLS) technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to flocculate the HABs from water and settle them onto sediment. Additionally, MLS capping treatment can reduce the resuspension of algae flocs from the sediment, and convert the algal cells, along with any excessive nutrients in-situ into fertilisers for the restoration of submerged macrophytes in shallow water systems. Furthermore, the capping treatment using oxygen nanobubble-MLS materials can also mitigate sediment anoxia, causing a reduction in the release of internal pollutants, such as nutrients and greenhouse gases. This paper reviews and quantifies the main features of MLS by investigating the effect of MLS treatment in five pilot-scale whole-pond field experiments carried out in Lake Tai, South China, and in Cetian Reservoir in Datong city, North China. Data obtained from field monitoring showed that the algae-dominated waters transform into a macrophyte-dominated state within four months of MLS treatment in shallow water systems. The sediment-water nutrient fluxes were substantially reduced, whilst water quality (TN, TP, and transparency) and biodiversity were significantly improved in the treatment ponds, compared to the control ponds within a duration ranging from one day to three years. The sediment anoxia remediation effect by oxygen nanobubble-MLS treatment may further contribute to deep water hypoxia remediation and eutrophication control. Combined with the integrated management of external loads control, MLS technology can provide an environmentally friendly geo-engineering method to accelerate ecological restoration and control eutrophication. View Full-Text
Keywords: harmful algal blooms (HABs); eutrophication; internal loads control; oxygen nanobubble; shallow lakes; deep water hypoxia harmful algal blooms (HABs); eutrophication; internal loads control; oxygen nanobubble; shallow lakes; deep water hypoxia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, G.; Miao, X.; Bi, L.; Zhang, H.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.; Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Ali, J.; Pan, M.; Zhang, J.; Yue, B.; Lyu, T. Modified Local Soil (MLS) Technology for Harmful Algal Bloom Control, Sediment Remediation, and Ecological Restoration. Water 2019, 11, 1123.

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