Flow Hydrodynamic in Open Channels: Interaction with Natural or Man-Made Structures

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 39999

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Interests: open channel flows; hydrodynamics; turbulent flows; vegetated channels; hydraulic structures; local scouring; hydraulic jumps; boundary layers; experimental and numerical modeling; coastal monitoring; maritime hydraulics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to discuss hydrodynamic structures in open channel flows. It is a focal point and a platform for exchanging recent ideas among engineers, scientists, specialists, designers, and practitioners interested in this topic. Rivers and open-channel flows are the subject of considerable hydromorphological alterations due to the flow interaction with natural or man-made structures found through them, i.e., natural vegetation, grade control structures, piers and abutments, discharge/suction systems, seepage, and movable/fixed boundary.

Sustainable management and monitoring of rivers/channels requires deep knowledge and understanding of hydrodynamic flow structures. Thanks to advances in technological devices (sensors and software), measurements and numerical modeling of turbulent flows become easier and more accurate, giving rise to the enhancement of fluid–structure interaction studies.

I cordially invite you to participate in this Special Issue by presenting your original, recent results with experimental and/or numerical approaches in flow–vegetation interaction, sediment transport and local scouring around hydraulic structures, coherent turbulent flow structures, turbulent jets in cross flows, hydraulic jumps, the flow–boundary layer interaction problem, solitary waves and tidal bores, and other problems related to this topic.

Prof. Dr. Mouldi Ben Meftah
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • river and open channel flows
  • hydrodynamic
  • vegetation
  • local scouring
  • turbulent jets
  • hydraulic jumps
  • boundary layers
  • solitary waves and tidal bores
  • experiments
  • numerical modeling

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 212 KiB  
Editorial
Flow Hydrodynamic in Open Channels: A Constantly Evolving Topic
by Mouldi Ben Meftah
Water 2022, 14(24), 4120; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244120 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Streams and riverbeds are subject to considerable hydromorphological alterations due to the interaction of their flow with natural or man-made structures found throughout them, i [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

16 pages, 4719 KiB  
Article
Hydraulic Characteristics of Lateral Deflectors with Different Geometries in Gentle-Slope Free-Surface Tunnels
by Jinrong Da, Junxing Wang, Zongshi Dong and Shuaiqun Du
Water 2022, 14(17), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172689 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
The gentle-slope tunnel has been adopted in many high dams, and aerators are usually required for high operating heads. For such tunnels, the lateral deflector is superior to the traditional bottom aerator, which loses its efficiency due to cavity blockage and fails to [...] Read more.
The gentle-slope tunnel has been adopted in many high dams, and aerators are usually required for high operating heads. For such tunnels, the lateral deflector is superior to the traditional bottom aerator, which loses its efficiency due to cavity blockage and fails to aerate the sidewalls. However, unfavorable flow patterns such as water-wings and shock waves are induced by the lateral deflectors. To address this problem, two novel lateral deflectors are proposed, and their hydraulic characteristics are comparatively investigated together with the triangular deflector by means of model test and numerical simulation. The triangular deflector was revealed to form a wide cavity that allows for the free rise up of the water-wings inside the cavity, leading to the development of a buddle-type shock wave, whereas the two-arc deflector yields a jet with a fluctuating surface, which induces water-wings and further develops into diamond-type shock waves. In contrast, the cavity formed behind the two-arc deflector with a straight downstream guiding line is stabler and shorter, thereby restricting the development of the rising flow and preventing the formation of water-wings and shock waves. Moreover, the two-arc deflector with a straight guiding line exhibits higher energy dissipation capacities and thus is recommended in practical engineering design. Full article
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17 pages, 8048 KiB  
Article
SWAN Modeling of Dredging Effect on the Oued Sebou Estuary
by Nisrine Iouzzi, Laila Mouakkir, Mouldi Ben Meftah, Mohamed Chagdali and Dalila Loudyi
Water 2022, 14(17), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172633 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The estuary ecosystem’s health and ecological integrity are essential for preserving environmental quality, habitats, and economic activity. The main objective of the present study is to comprehend the wave hydrodynamic impact on the Oued Sebou estuary, which is situated in the Kenitra region [...] Read more.
The estuary ecosystem’s health and ecological integrity are essential for preserving environmental quality, habitats, and economic activity. The main objective of the present study is to comprehend the wave hydrodynamic impact on the Oued Sebou estuary, which is situated in the Kenitra region on Morocco’s north Atlantic coast in North Africa. Specifically, it focused on the dredging effect (caused by sand extraction) on the wave motion and its impact on the estuary environment. Different scenarios of wave-propagation simulations were carried out, varying the significant wave height, in deep water (from 1.5 to 4 m), and considering the bathymetry before and after two dredging cases of 2- and 4-m depths. The change of wave height at the Oued Sebou estuary shoreline was simulated by using the third version of the Simulating Waves Nearshore Model (SWAN). The SWAN model formulates the wave evolution in terms of a spectral energy balance on a structured grid. The effect of dredging on the wave spreading in addition to the flow hydrodynamic structures were extensively analyzed. According to the simulated results, the dredging activities in the Oued Sebou estuary mainly affect the river mouth and the southern breakwater area, increasing the potential erosive action. The areas at the northern coastal strip and near the northern breakwater are subject to possible accumulation of sediments. Full article
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20 pages, 6820 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Properties of Hydraulic Jump off a Tidal Bore, Its Generation and Transport Mechanisms: A Case Study of the Kampar River Estuary, Indonesia
by Ulung Jantama Wisha, Yusuf Jati Wijaya and Yukiharu Hisaki
Water 2022, 14(16), 2561; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162561 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Since the hydraulic jump off a tidal bore in the Kampar Estuary has never been well-described, real-time measurements of hydraulic jump properties are crucial to understanding the tidal bore characteristics. This study aims to determine the real-time properties of a tidal bore generation, [...] Read more.
Since the hydraulic jump off a tidal bore in the Kampar Estuary has never been well-described, real-time measurements of hydraulic jump properties are crucial to understanding the tidal bore characteristics. This study aims to determine the real-time properties of a tidal bore generation, hydraulic jump, and transport mechanism in the Kampar River estuary. Tidal harmonic and range are analyzed using least-square-based tidal modeling. The tidal bore height and turbulent velocity records based on ADCP surveys in the estuary and upstream area are used to determine the hydraulic jump properties. Furthermore, an acoustic-based approach is also employed to quantify the suspended sediment concentration and flux during the passage of the bore. Kampar Estuary is predominated by semidiurnal co-tidal components (M2 and S2), where, based on the phase lag magnitude, it is categorized as an ebb-dominant estuary. This finding is proven by the more intense and prolonged ebb phases, especially during spring tidal conditions where the tidal range reaches 4 m. Of particular concern, the tidal bore height declines by 1.5 m every 20 km upstream with an erratic turbulent velocity. A sudden increase in transverse and vertical velocity during the passage of bore (ranging from −0.9 to 0.2 m/s) reflects the potency of sediment resuspension in the surrounding river edge marked by the significant increase in suspended sediment flux of about 3.7 times larger than at the end of the ebb tide. However, long-term measurement and regular bathymetry surveys are crucial to monitor the tidal bore behavior and morpho-dynamics in the Kampar River estuary. Full article
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18 pages, 4979 KiB  
Article
Flow Field around a Vertical Cylinder in Presence of Long Waves: An Experimental Study
by Rosangela Basile and Francesca De Serio
Water 2022, 14(12), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121945 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Long waves caused by storm surges or river floods can significantly impact marine and fluvial structures such as bridge piers. Apart from the forces that they generate on the structure, they also contribute to the formation of turbulent eddies downstream of the obstacle. [...] Read more.
Long waves caused by storm surges or river floods can significantly impact marine and fluvial structures such as bridge piers. Apart from the forces that they generate on the structure, they also contribute to the formation of turbulent eddies downstream of the obstacle. This is relevant, as in this way they can affect both an erodible bottom and the ecosystem. The present study describes a medium-scale experiment, in which the propagation of two different long waves released on a steady current is investigated in the presence of a bottom-mounted rigid emergent cylinder. Velocity measurements were acquired by a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system, providing instantaneous flow velocity vectors on selected 2D planes. For each experimental condition, the time-varying velocity field near the cylinder was examined in selected vertical and horizontal planes. First, we tested which analytical theory or approximated method can best represent the experimental waves. After this, we estimated the horizontal maps of velocity and vorticity downstream of the obstacle and finally processed the velocity signals by means of a wavelet-based technique, to derive the length scales of turbulent eddies. In such a way, we specifically derived how the spreading of coherent turbulent structures downstream of the cylinder depends on the features of the flume, cylinder, and wave. Full article
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17 pages, 49670 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Assessment of Scour Hazard
by David Flores-Vidriales, Roberto Gómez and Dante Tolentino
Water 2022, 14(3), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030273 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
Scour is the most frequent cause of bridge collapses in Mexico. Bridges located along the Mexican Pacific coast are exposed to extreme rainfall originating from tropical storms and hurricanes. Such environmental phenomena trigger sediment loss, which is known as scour. If maintenance actions [...] Read more.
Scour is the most frequent cause of bridge collapses in Mexico. Bridges located along the Mexican Pacific coast are exposed to extreme rainfall originating from tropical storms and hurricanes. Such environmental phenomena trigger sediment loss, which is known as scour. If maintenance actions are not taken after scouring events, the scour depth increases over time until the bridge collapses. A methodology to estimate the scour hazard considering both the scour–fill interaction and the Monte Carlo simulation method is proposed. The general extreme value probability distribution is used to characterize the intensity of the scouring events, the lognormal distribution is used to characterize the sedimentation process (fill), and a homogeneous Poisson process is used to forecast the occurrence of both types of events. Based on the above, several histories of scour–fill depths are made; such simulations are then used to develop time-dependent scour hazard curves. Different hazard curves associated with different time intervals are estimated for a bridge located in Oaxaca, Mexico. Full article
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13 pages, 5846 KiB  
Article
Turbulent Flow through Random Vegetation on a Rough Bed
by Francesco Coscarella, Nadia Penna, Aldo Pedro Ferrante, Paola Gualtieri and Roberto Gaudio
Water 2021, 13(18), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182564 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
River vegetation radically modifies the flow field and turbulence characteristics. To analyze the vegetation effects on the flow, most scientific studies are based on laboratory tests or numerical simulations with vegetation stems on smooth beds. Nevertheless, in this manner, the effects of bed [...] Read more.
River vegetation radically modifies the flow field and turbulence characteristics. To analyze the vegetation effects on the flow, most scientific studies are based on laboratory tests or numerical simulations with vegetation stems on smooth beds. Nevertheless, in this manner, the effects of bed sediments are neglected. The aim of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effects of bed sediments in a vegetated channel and, in consideration of that, comparative experiments of velocity measures, performed with an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) profiler, were carried out in a laboratory flume with different uniform bed sediment sizes and the same pattern of randomly arranged emergent rigid vegetation. To better comprehend the time-averaged flow conditions, the time-averaged velocity was explored. Subsequently, the analysis was focused on the energetic characteristics of the flow field with the determination of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) and its components, as well as of the energy spectra of the velocity components immediately downstream of a vegetation element. The results show that both the vegetation and bed roughness surface deeply affect the turbulence characteristics. Furthermore, it was revealed that the roughness influence becomes predominant as the grain size becomes larger. Full article
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14 pages, 5008 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Friction Factor and Reynolds Number Relationship for Flow in Smooth and Rough Channels
by Yeon-Moon Choo, Jong-Gu Kim and Sang-Ho Park
Water 2021, 13(12), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121714 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4657
Abstract
The shear velocity and friction coefficient for representing the resistance of flow are key factors to determine the flow characteristics of the open-channel flow. Various studies have been conducted in the open-channel flow, but many controversies remain over the form of equation and [...] Read more.
The shear velocity and friction coefficient for representing the resistance of flow are key factors to determine the flow characteristics of the open-channel flow. Various studies have been conducted in the open-channel flow, but many controversies remain over the form of equation and estimation methods. This is because the equations developed based on theory have not fully interpreted the friction characteristics in an open-channel flow. In this paper, a friction coefficient equation is proposed by using the entropy concept. The proposed equation is determined under the rectangular, the trapezoid, the parabolic round-bottomed triangle, and the parabolic-bottomed triangle open-channel flow conditions. To evaluate the proposed equation, the estimated results are compared with measured data in both the smooth and rough flow conditions. The evaluation results showed that R (correlation coefficient) is found to be above 0.96 in most cases, and the discrepancy ratio analysis results are very close to zero. The advantage of the developed equation is that the energy slope terms are not included, because the determination of the exact value is the most difficult in the open-channel flow. The developed equation uses only the mean velocity and entropy M to estimate the friction loss coefficient, which can be used for maximizing the design efficiency. Full article
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21 pages, 42406 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Flow in a Strongly Curved Channel with Gravel Beds
by Ying-Tien Lin, Yu Yang, Yu-Jia Chiu and Xiaoyan Ji
Water 2021, 13(11), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111519 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
This study experimentally and numerically investigated the hydrodynamic characteristics of a 180° curved open channel over rough bed under the condition of constant downstream water depth. Three different sizes of bed particles (the small, middle and big cases based upon the grain size [...] Read more.
This study experimentally and numerically investigated the hydrodynamic characteristics of a 180° curved open channel over rough bed under the condition of constant downstream water depth. Three different sizes of bed particles (the small, middle and big cases based upon the grain size diameter D50) were selected for flume tests. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocities obtained by the acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) were used to analyze hydrodynamic characteristics. Additionally, the Renormalization-Group (RNG) turbulence model was employed for numerical simulations. Experimental results show that rough bed strengthens turbulence and increases turbulent kinetic energy along curved channels. The power spectra of the longitudinal velocity fluctuation satisfy the classic Kolmogorov −5/3 law in the inertial subrange, and the existence of rough bed shortens the inertial subrange and causes the flow reach the viscous dissipation range in advance. The contributions of sweeps and ejections are more important than those of the outward and inward interactions over a rough bed for the middle case. Flow-3D was adopted to simulate flow patterns on two rough bed settings with same surface roughness (skin drag) but different bed shapes (form drag): one is bed covered with thick bottom sediment layers along the curved part of the flume (the big case) as the experimental condition, and the other one is uniform bed along the entire flume (called the big case_flat only for simulations). Numerical simulations reveal that the secondary flow is confined to the near-bed area and the intensity of secondary flow is improved for both rough bed cases, possibly causing more serious bed erosion along a curved channel. In addition, the thick bottom sediments (the big case), i.e., larger form drag, can enhance turbulence strength near bed regions, enlarge the transverse range of secondary flow, and delay the shifting of the core region of maximum longitudinal velocity towards the concave bank. Full article
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21 pages, 3420 KiB  
Article
Secondary Currents with Scour Hole at Grade Control Structures
by Mouldi Ben Meftah, Diana De Padova, Francesca De Serio and Michele Mossa
Water 2021, 13(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030319 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Most studies on local scouring at grade control structures have principally focused on the analysis of the primary flow field, predicting the equilibrium scour depth. Despite the numerous studies on scouring processes, secondary currents were not often considered. Based on comprehensive measurements of [...] Read more.
Most studies on local scouring at grade control structures have principally focused on the analysis of the primary flow field, predicting the equilibrium scour depth. Despite the numerous studies on scouring processes, secondary currents were not often considered. Based on comprehensive measurements of flow velocities in clear water scours downstream of a grade control structure in a channel with non-cohesive sediments, in this study, we attempted to investigate the generation and turbulence properties of secondary currents across a scour hole at equilibrium condition. The flow velocity distributions through the cross-sectional planes at the downstream location of the maximum equilibrium scour depth clearly show the development of secondary current cells. The secondary currents form a sort of helical-like motion, occurring in both halves of the cross-section in an axisymmetric fashion. A detailed analysis of the turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses was carried out and compared with previous studies. The results highlight considerable spatial heterogeneities of flow turbulence. The anisotropy term of normal stresses dominates the secondary shear stress, giving the impression of its crucial role in generating secondary flow motion across the scour hole. The anisotropy term shows maximum values near both the scour mouth and the scour bed, caused, respectively, by the grade control structure and the sediment ridge formation, which play fundamental roles in maintaining and enhancing the secondary flow motion. Full article
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19 pages, 4769 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of Velocity Distribution in a Coarse-Grained Debris Flow: A Modified Bagnold’s Equation
by Donatella Termini and Antonio Fichera
Water 2020, 12(5), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051415 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Today, Bagnold’s theory is still applied to gravity-driven flows under the assumption of uniform sediment concentration. This study presents findings of flume experiments conducted to investigate the velocity and concentration distributions within the debris body by using high-resolution images. The analysis has shown [...] Read more.
Today, Bagnold’s theory is still applied to gravity-driven flows under the assumption of uniform sediment concentration. This study presents findings of flume experiments conducted to investigate the velocity and concentration distributions within the debris body by using high-resolution images. The analysis has shown that the concentration and mobility of grains vary along the depth. A linear law to interpret the grains concentration distribution, starting from the knowledge of the packing concentration and of the surface concentration, Cs, has been identified. By considering such a law, modified expressions of the Bagnold’s number and the velocity in stony-type debris flows are also presented. By using these expressions, three regimes of motion have been identified along the depth, and the velocity profile within the debris body is determined as a function of the parameter Cs. It has been verified that the velocity profiles estimated by using the modified equation compare well (mean square error less than 0.1) with the literature’s measured profiles when Cs is correctly measured or estimated. Results of cutting tests, conducted for a sample of the used material, have also allowed us to verify that Cs could be determined as a function of the static friction angle of the material. Full article
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14 pages, 6011 KiB  
Article
Deciphering Morphological Changes in a Sinuous River System by Higher-Order Velocity Moments
by Jyotismita Taye, Jyotirmoy Barman, Bimlesh Kumar and Giuseppe Oliveto
Water 2020, 12(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030772 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
Bank erosion in a sinuous alluvial channel is a continuous phenomenon resulting in bank instability and migration of sediment. In this study, flume experiments were conducted in a sinuous channel to investigate its morphological changes and hydrodynamics. High-order velocity fluctuation moments are analyzed [...] Read more.
Bank erosion in a sinuous alluvial channel is a continuous phenomenon resulting in bank instability and migration of sediment. In this study, flume experiments were conducted in a sinuous channel to investigate its morphological changes and hydrodynamics. High-order velocity fluctuation moments are analyzed at outer and inner banks to explain the morphological variation in a sinuous river channel. The variance of streamwise velocity fluctuations on both banks of the sinuous channel follows a logarithmic law from a particular depth. In the outer bend region, the magnitude of velocity fluctuation moment is significant, indicating erosion. The trend of velocity fluctuation at higher even-order moments is similar to the variance of streamwise velocity fluctuations where the outer bend magnitude is greater than the inner bend. The premultiplied probability density functions (PDFs) and the flatness factor show greater magnitude in the outer bend of the channel as compared to the inner bend. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

22 pages, 922 KiB  
Review
Scour at Bridge Piers Protected by the Riprap Sloping Structure: A Review
by Antonija Harasti, Gordon Gilja, Kristina Potočki and Martina Lacko
Water 2021, 13(24), 3606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243606 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4943
Abstract
Bridge piers on large rivers are often protected from scouring using launchable stone, such as a riprap sloping structure. While such scour countermeasures are effective for pier protection, they significantly alter flow conditions in the bridge opening by overtopping flow and flow contraction, [...] Read more.
Bridge piers on large rivers are often protected from scouring using launchable stone, such as a riprap sloping structure. While such scour countermeasures are effective for pier protection, they significantly alter flow conditions in the bridge opening by overtopping flow and flow contraction, deflecting the formation of the scour hole downstream and exposing the downstream riverbed to additional scour. This paper provides a comprehensive and relevant review of bridge scour estimation methods for piers with a riprap sloping structure installed as a scour countermeasure. Research on empirical methods for bridge scour estimation is reviewed and analyzed with formulae used for comparable structures—complex pier formulae and formulae for river training structures. A summary of relevant formulae applicable to piers with installed scour countermeasures is provided, as well as a discussion on the possible future research directions that could contribute to the field. Full article
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27 pages, 2447 KiB  
Review
Flow Resistance in Open Channel Due to Vegetation at Reach Scale: A Review
by Antonino D’Ippolito, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi and Agostino Lauria
Water 2021, 13(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020116 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 5492
Abstract
Vegetation on the banks and flooding areas of watercourses significantly affects energy losses. To take the latter into account, computational models make use of resistance coefficients based on the evaluation of bed and walls roughness besides the resistance to flow offered by vegetation. [...] Read more.
Vegetation on the banks and flooding areas of watercourses significantly affects energy losses. To take the latter into account, computational models make use of resistance coefficients based on the evaluation of bed and walls roughness besides the resistance to flow offered by vegetation. This paper, after summarizing the classical approaches based on descriptions and pictures, considers the recent advancements related to the analytical methods relative both to rigid and flexible vegetation. In particular, emergent rigid vegetation is first analyzed by focusing on the methods for determining the drag coefficient, then submerged rigid vegetation is analyzed, highlighting briefly the principles on which the different models are based and recalling the comparisons made in the literature. Then, the models used in the case of both emergent and submerged rigid vegetation are highlighted. As to flexible vegetation, the paper reminds first the flow conditions that cause the vegetation to lay on the channel bed, and then the classical resistance laws that were developed for the design of irrigation canals. The most recent developments in the case of submerged and emergent flexible vegetation are then presented. Since turbulence studies should be considered as the basis of flow resistance, even though the path toward practical use is still long, the new developments in the field of 3D numerical methods are briefly reviewed, presently used to assess the characteristics of turbulence and the transport of sediments and pollutants. The use of remote sensing to map riparian vegetation and estimating biomechanical parameters is briefly analyzed. Finally, some applications are presented, aimed at highlighting, in real cases, the influence exerted by vegetation on water depth and maintenance interventions. Full article
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