Special Issue "Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 15458

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is important to bear in mind that a flood in a modern economy can be expected to bring about a whole gamut of consequences. The costs of damage caused by extreme weather events, among which floods are a major category, have exhibited a rapid upward trend, both globally and in Europe. Reasonable approaches to flood risk assessment are indispensable. The scope and extremity of flood episodes point to the need to develop a comprehensive proposal for the eventual completion of flood protection measures in potentially flooded areas. The aim of flood risk management is to implement proposed flood protection measures. In Europe, the main objectives of management as well as the entire management cycle are regulated by the Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks. The aim of this directive is to reduce the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage, and economic activity associated with floods. This Special Issue summarizes the latest knowledge on the methods and tools of flood risk assessment and management worldwide, mainly in urban areas.

Prof. Dr. Martina Zeleňáková
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • flood
  • climate change
  • precipitation
  • rainwater management
  • urban areas

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Article
The Identification of Risks for Drinking Water Intakes in Urbanized Area: The Case Study of Toruń (Central Poland)
Water 2021, 13(23), 3378; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233378 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
This article discusses the problem of natural hazards connected with climatic changes and their influence on water safety. A medium-sized town in central Poland which is supplied with consumption water from both underground water intakes and surface water resources was selected as a [...] Read more.
This article discusses the problem of natural hazards connected with climatic changes and their influence on water safety. A medium-sized town in central Poland which is supplied with consumption water from both underground water intakes and surface water resources was selected as a case study. Natural hazards, such as droughts or floods, were identified and the risk of the occurrence of natural hazards concerning water supply systems assessed. The findings of the archived data analysis for the period 1971–2020 helped to identify extreme circumstances, the occurrence of which had an impact on secure water supplies in terms of quantity. Moreover, the results obtained indicate that the greatest influence had all the situations connected with the Drwęca low water discharge, which in the long term could lead to temporary water shortages. In the analyzed period, there was a significant increase in the number of days without precipitation, together with a statistically significant increase in the average annual air temperature. Meteorological hazards related to days without precipitation far outweighed the occurrence of days with intense precipitation. The analysis of water table fluctuations observed at the Jedwabno infiltration intake showed a high sensitivity of the aquifer to atmospheric conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Numerical Canal Seepage Loss Evaluation for Different Lining and Crack Techniques in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Case Study of the River Nile, Egypt
Water 2021, 13(21), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213135 - 07 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Owing to the potential negative impacts of climatic changes and the grand Ethiopian renaissance dam, water scarcity has become an urgent issue. Therefore, the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation has started a national project of the lining and rehabilitation of canals, [...] Read more.
Owing to the potential negative impacts of climatic changes and the grand Ethiopian renaissance dam, water scarcity has become an urgent issue. Therefore, the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation has started a national project of the lining and rehabilitation of canals, to reduce seepage losses and for efficient water resource management. This study presents a new approach for assessing three different lining and crack techniques for the Ismailia canal, the largest end of the river Nile, Egypt. A 2-D steady state seep/w numerical model was developed for the Ismailia canal section, in the stretch at 28.00–49.00 km. The amount of seepage was significantly dependent on the hydraulic characteristics of the liner material. The extraction from aquifers via wells also had a considerable impact on the seepage rate from the unlined canals; however, a lesser effect was present in the case of lined canals. The concrete liner revealed the highest efficiency, followed by the geomembrane liner, and then the bentonite liner; with almost 99%, 96%, and 54%, respectively, without extraction, and decreasing by 4% for bentonite and geomembrane liners during extraction; however, the concrete lining efficiency did not change considerably. Nevertheless, the efficiency dramatically decreased to 25%, regardless of the lining technique, in the case of deterioration of the liner material. The double effect of both deterioration of the liner material and extraction from the aquifer showed a 16% efficiency, irrespective of the utilized lining technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Tool for Quantitative Risk Analysis of Urban Flooding
Water 2021, 13(19), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192771 - 06 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
One of the effects of climate change is an increasing frequency of heavy rainfall events, which in turn leads to increased flooding damage in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for dynamic risk evaluation that can be [...] Read more.
One of the effects of climate change is an increasing frequency of heavy rainfall events, which in turn leads to increased flooding damage in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for dynamic risk evaluation that can be used to fulfil several of the goals in the European Flood Risk Management Directive. Flood risk analysis was performed as a spatial GIS analysis with the FME software. The primary data source for the analysis was a 1D/2D model calculation, wherein 1D models described the pipeline network and the watercourses and a 2D model described surface runoff. An ArcGIS online platform was developed to visualize the results in a format understandable for decision makers. The method and tool were tested for the Norwegian capital of Oslo. The tool developed in the study enabled the efficient analysis of consequences for various precipitation scenarios. Results could be used to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding and prioritize areas in which measures need to be implemented. The study showed that for urban areas in steep terrain, it is essential to include water velocity and depth-integrated velocity in risk analysis in addition to water depths and pipe network capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Assessment of Ensemble Models for Groundwater Potential Modeling and Prediction in a Karst Watershed
Water 2021, 13(18), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182540 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Due to numerous droughts in recent years, the amount of surface water in arid and semi-arid regions has decreased significantly, so reliance on groundwater to meet local and regional demands has increased. The Kabgian watershed is a karst watershed in southwestern Iran that [...] Read more.
Due to numerous droughts in recent years, the amount of surface water in arid and semi-arid regions has decreased significantly, so reliance on groundwater to meet local and regional demands has increased. The Kabgian watershed is a karst watershed in southwestern Iran that provides a significant proportion of drinking and agriculture water supplies in the area. This study identified areas with karst groundwater potential using a combination of machine learning and statistical models, including entropy-SVM-LN, entropy-SVM-SG, and entropy-SVM-RBF. To do this, 384 karst springs were identified and mapped. Sixteen factors that are related to karst potential were identified from a review of the literature, and these were compiled for the study area. The 384 locations were randomly separated into two categories for training (269 location) and validation (115 location) datasets to be used in the modeling process. The ROC curve was used to evaluate the modeling results. The models used, in general, were good at determining the location of karst groundwater potential. The evaluation showed that the E-SVM-RBF model had an area under the curve of 0.92, indicating that it was most accurate estimator of groundwater potential among the ensemble models. Evaluation of the relative importance of each of the 16 factors revealed that land use, a vector ruggedness measure, curvature, and topography roughness index were the most important explainers of the presence of karst groundwater in the study area. It was also found that the factors affecting the presence of karst springs are significantly different from non-karst springs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Optimization-Based Proposed Solution for Water Shortage Problems: A Case Study in the Ismailia Canal, East Nile Delta, Egypt
Water 2021, 13(18), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182481 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Water conflicts in transboundary watersheds are significantly exacerbated by insufficient freshwater sources and high water demands. Due to its increasing population and various development projects, as well as current and potential water shortages, Egypt is one of the most populated and impacted countries [...] Read more.
Water conflicts in transboundary watersheds are significantly exacerbated by insufficient freshwater sources and high water demands. Due to its increasing population and various development projects, as well as current and potential water shortages, Egypt is one of the most populated and impacted countries in Africa and the Middle East in terms of water scarcity. With good future planning, modeling will help to solve water scarcity problems in the Ismailia canal, which is one of the most significant branches of the Nile River. Many previous studies of the Nile river basin depended on quality modeling and hydro-economic models which had policy or system control constraints. To overcome this deficit position and number, the East Nile Delta area was investigated using LINDO (linear interactive, and discrete optimizer) software; a mathematical model with physical constraints (mass balances); and ArcGIS software for canals and water demands from the agriculture sector, which is expected to face a water shortage. Using the total capital (Ismailia canal, groundwater, and water reuse) and total demand for water from different industries, the software measures the shortage area and redistributes the water according to demand node preferences (irrigation, domestic, and industrial water demands). At the irrigation network’s end, a water deficit of 789.81 MCM/year was estimated at Al-Salhiya, Ismailia, El Qantara West, Fayed, and Port Said. The model was then run through three scenarios: (1) the Ismailia Canal Lining’s effect, (2) surface water’s impact, and (3) groundwater’s impact. Water scarcity was proportional to lining four sections at a length of 61.0 km, which is considered to be optimal—based on the simulation which predicts that the Ismailia canal head flow will rise by 15%, according to scenarios—and the most effective way to reduce water scarcity in the face of climate change and limited resources as a result of the increasing population and built-in industrial projects in Egypt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Efficient Hazard Assessment for Pluvial Floods in Urban Environments: A Benchmarking Case Study for the City of Berlin, Germany
Water 2021, 13(18), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182476 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The presence of impermeable surfaces in urban areas hinders natural drainage and directs the surface runoff to storm drainage systems with finite capacity, which makes these areas prone to pluvial flooding. The occurrence of pluvial flooding depends on the existence of minimal areas [...] Read more.
The presence of impermeable surfaces in urban areas hinders natural drainage and directs the surface runoff to storm drainage systems with finite capacity, which makes these areas prone to pluvial flooding. The occurrence of pluvial flooding depends on the existence of minimal areas for surface runoff generation and concentration. Detailed hydrologic and hydrodynamic simulations are computationally expensive and require intensive resources. This study compared and evaluated the performance of two simplified methods to identify urban pluvial flood-prone areas, namely the fill–spill–merge (FSM) method and the topographic wetness index (TWI) method and used the TELEMAC-2D hydrodynamic numerical model for benchmarking and validation. The FSM method uses common GIS operations to identify flood-prone depressions from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The TWI method employs the maximum likelihood method (MLE) to probabilistically calibrate a TWI threshold (τ) based on the inundation maps from a 2D hydrodynamic model for a given spatial window (W) within the urban area. We found that the FSM method clearly outperforms the TWI method both conceptually and effectively in terms of model performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Communication
Comprehensive Understanding the Disaster-Causing Mechanism, Governance Dilemma and Targeted Countermeasures of Urban Pluvial Flooding in China
Water 2021, 13(13), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131762 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Urban pluvial flooding in China has become one of the major challenges for sustainable development. This paper analyzes the impact of climate change, urbanization, and integrated disaster drivers on urban pluvial flooding hazards, starting from the disaster-causing mechanisms of urban pluvial flooding in [...] Read more.
Urban pluvial flooding in China has become one of the major challenges for sustainable development. This paper analyzes the impact of climate change, urbanization, and integrated disaster drivers on urban pluvial flooding hazards, starting from the disaster-causing mechanisms of urban pluvial flooding in China. This paper then analyzes the main features and progress of urban pluvial flooding governance in China. In particular, this paper describes the progress of sponge cities in China. On the basis of the above contents, this paper describes three manifestations of the fragmentation dilemma at the level of governance, namely, fragmentation in value integration due to conflicting management orders and service values, fragmentation in resource and power allocation due to the lack of vertical top-level design and blurred horizontal departmental management boundaries, and fragmentation in policy formulation and implementation due to outdated urban flood control standards and interdepartmental information compartmentalization. In response to the fragmentation dilemma in urban pluvial flooding management in China, this paper introduces the concept of holistic governance and clarifies the path of urban waterlogging management, i.e., forming a collaborative and diversified governance subjects, deeply optimizing the organizational structure of urban waterlogging management, creating a mature information-based governance platform, and improving the legal and rule of law construction model. This paper is informative for understanding the governance of urban pluvial flooding in China from a government-led management level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt
Water 2021, 13(12), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121715 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive study to assess the impact of climate change on Egypt’s water resources, focusing on irrigation water for agricultural crops, considering that the agriculture sector is the largest consumer of water in Egypt. The study aims to estimate future [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive study to assess the impact of climate change on Egypt’s water resources, focusing on irrigation water for agricultural crops, considering that the agriculture sector is the largest consumer of water in Egypt. The study aims to estimate future climate conditions using general circulation models (GCMs), to assess the impact of climate change and temperature increase on water demands for irrigation using the CROPWAT 8 model, and to determine the suitable irrigation type to adapt with future climate change. A case study was selected in the Middle part of Egypt. The study area includes Giza, Bani-Sweif, Al-Fayoum, and Minya governorates. The irrigation water requirements for major crops under current weather conditions and future climatic changes were estimated. Under the conditions of the four selected models CCSM-30, GFDLCM20, GFDLCM21, and GISS-EH, as well as the chosen scenario of A1BAIM, climate model (MAGICC/ScenGen) was applied in 2050 and 2100 to estimate the potential rise in the annual mean temperature in Middle Egypt. The results of the MAGICC/SceGen model indicated that the potential rise in temperature in the study area will be 2.12 °C in 2050, and 3.96 °C in 2100. The percentage of increase in irrigation water demands for winter crops under study ranged from 6.1 to 7.3% in 2050, and from 11.7 to 13.2% in 2100. At the same time, the increase in irrigation water demands for summer crops ranged from 4.9 to 5.8% in 2050, and from 9.3 to 10.9% in 2100. For Nili crops, the increase ranged from 5.0 to 5.1% in 2050, and from 9.6 to 9.9% in 2100. The increase in water demands due to climate change will affect the water security in Egypt, as the available water resources are limited, and population growth is another challenge which requires a proper management of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Assessing the Impact of Lining Polluted Streams on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of the Eastern Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt
Water 2021, 13(12), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121705 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Groundwater is considered to be an important water supply for domestics, industry, and irrigation in many areas of the world. Renewable groundwater is recharged by rainfall and seepage from canals and open drain networks. Agricultural and industrial drainage, as well as domestic drainage, [...] Read more.
Groundwater is considered to be an important water supply for domestics, industry, and irrigation in many areas of the world. Renewable groundwater is recharged by rainfall and seepage from canals and open drain networks. Agricultural and industrial drainage, as well as domestic drainage, represent the main discharges into open drains. Therefore, these drains are considered to be a source of recharge as well as a source of pollution. In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of the Bahr El Baqar drain system on groundwater quality in the Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt. MODFLOW was used to create a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in an aquifer and MT3DS was used to simulate solute transport from the open contaminated Bahr El Baqar drain to the groundwater. Two approaches were developed in the study area. The first approach was applied to investigate the impact of increasing the abstraction rates on the contaminant transport into the aquifer, the second approach was developed to identify the effect of lining the drain using different materials on contaminant extension in the aquifer to protect groundwater quality in the east Nile Delta Aquifer. The results showed that the TDS values increased by 18.23%, 23.29%, and 19.24% with increased abstraction rates of 15%, 34%, and 70%, resulting from population increases in 2010, 2025, and 2040, respectively; however, the TDS in the aquifer decreased from 0.6%, to 6.36%, 88.35%, and 90.47% by using lining materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Identification of Extreme Weather Events Using Meteorological and Hydrological Indicators in the Laborec River Catchment, Slovakia
Water 2021, 13(10), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101413 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
This study used the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized runoff index (SRI) to analyze dry and humid conditions in the hill-country catchment area of the Laborec River (Slovakia) over a period of 50 years (1970–2019). Analysis of the SPI and SRI [...] Read more.
This study used the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized runoff index (SRI) to analyze dry and humid conditions in the hill-country catchment area of the Laborec River (Slovakia) over a period of 50 years (1970–2019). Analysis of the SPI and SRI over various time scales showed the occurrence of wet periods (index > 1.0) that were associated with precipitation exceeding the long-term norm, and dry periods (index below −1.0), which were the result of small amounts of precipitation. Analysis of the correlation between the SPI and SRI on different time scales revealed that the catchment showed a weaker response to precipitation over short time scales (1 and 3 months) and a stronger response over longer accumulation periods (6, 9, and 12 months). The highest annual correlation coefficient (r = 0.72) was recorded between SRI-6 at the Humenne hydrometric station and SPI-9 at the Medzilaborce meteorological station in the upper part of the catchment area. The strongest annual correlation (r = 0.69) was obtained between the Izkovce and Kamenica stations in the lower part of the catchment area. As shown by the cross-relationships examined over different periods of accumulation of flows and precipitation, hydrological droughts appeared as a result of the occurrence of meteorological droughts with a three-month delay. The conducted analysis showed that in the case of the Laborec river catchment area, there was a strong correlation between the occurrence of meteorological drought and hydrological drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Highly Resolved Runoff Path Simulation Based on Urban Surface Landscape Layout for Sub-Catchment Scale
Water 2021, 13(10), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101345 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The present study explored the regularities of the path and network structure of surface runoff formed under the influence of urban surface landscapes. We used unmanned aerial vehicle sensors to examine terrain and land use/cover change. The sub-catchments of a typical city, Luohe, [...] Read more.
The present study explored the regularities of the path and network structure of surface runoff formed under the influence of urban surface landscapes. We used unmanned aerial vehicle sensors to examine terrain and land use/cover change. The sub-catchments of a typical city, Luohe, China, were evaluated for the effect of landscape on surface runoff. Landscape and topographic parameters from 166 urban sub-catchments in Luohe were obtained by measuring digital surface models and orthophoto maps. The minimum cumulative resistance model was used to simulate potential runoff and 491,820 potential runoff paths, connected upstream and downstream, were obtained in 166 sub-catchments. The chi-square test was used to compare simulation runoff paths and actual runoff depth, with the results showing that they led to the same distribution trend. When the gravity coefficient was greater than 18.93, path disconnection occurred among 166 sub-catchments, with a decrease in channels. The potential runoff distribution appeared in aggregation; as the gravity coefficient increased from low to high, aggregation showed a trend of increasing initially but subsequently decreasing. The initial runoff formed sub-catchments with high gravity coefficients, then accumulated and spread to the others. It is important that proper measures are taken to establish a unified planning of the city’s surface landscape in order to produce suitable surface runoff distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Analytical Solution of Saltwater Intrusion in Costal Aquifers Considering Climate Changes and Different Boundary Conditions
Water 2021, 13(7), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070995 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
Groundwater contamination due to saltwater intrusion (SWI) has an extreme effect on freshwater quality. Analytical and numerical models could be used to investigate SWI. This study aims to develop an analytical solution to investigate SWI into coastal aquifers which was applied to a [...] Read more.
Groundwater contamination due to saltwater intrusion (SWI) has an extreme effect on freshwater quality. Analytical and numerical models could be used to investigate SWI. This study aims to develop an analytical solution to investigate SWI into coastal aquifers which was applied to a real case study at the Middle Nile Delta aquifer (MNDA). The study presented a new formula to predict the difference in depth of freshwater to seawater interface due to a change in boundary conditions. A Computer Program for Simulation of Three-Dimensional Variable-Density Ground-Water Flow and Transport (SEAWAT) is used for groundwater flow simulation and SWI and the results compared with the developed analytical solution. Four scenarios are considered in the study, including; the sea-level rise (SLR), reduction in recharge, over abstraction, and combination after 50 years (2070). The analytical solution gave good results compared to the numerical one where Equiline 1 intruded to 103 and 101.66 km respectively at the base case. The results also gave a good agreement between numerical and the analytical solution for SLR due to climate changes by 52.80 cm where the Equiline 1 reached to 105 and 103.45 km. However, the reduction in aquifer recharge by 18.50% resulted in an intrusion for the Equiline-1 to 111 and 108.25 km from the shoreline. Over pumping due to the increase in population by 89% has increased the SWI to reach 121,110.31 km, while it reached 131 and 111.32 km at a combination of the three scenarios, which represents the highest threatening scenario. Also, the difference between the two solutions reached 1.30%, 1.48%, 2.48%, 8.84%, and 15.02%, respectively for the base case and four scenarios. For the current case study, the analytical model gave good results compared to the numerical one, so that the analytical solution is recommended for similar studies, which could save the time and capabilities of computer required for the numerical solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Long-Term Analysis of Precipitation in Slovakia
Water 2021, 13(7), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070952 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Precipitation and its development over time is an important indicator of climate change. Research on long-term precipitation totals is absent in the Slovak Republic. This paper deals with the statistical analysis of daily precipitation from 48 precipitation stations in Slovakia. The paper evaluates [...] Read more.
Precipitation and its development over time is an important indicator of climate change. Research on long-term precipitation totals is absent in the Slovak Republic. This paper deals with the statistical analysis of daily precipitation from 48 precipitation stations in Slovakia. The paper evaluates the spatial distribution of precipitation in Slovakia and also presents analyses of stationarity and trends using the Mann-Kendall test. Emphasis is placed especially on the evaluation of the trends in total annual precipitation, maximum daily precipitation and also the number of days without precipitation in the year. By evaluating the trends in these three indicators, it is possible to assess the impact of potential change in the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation on hydrological drought and floods. The results show that there are currently no significant changes in precipitation in Slovakia. The problem of floods and hydrological drought seems to be more complex and is mainly due to surface water drainage from the landscape and the change in its use in connection with the increase in the average annual temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Article
Integration of the Analytical Hierarchy Process and GIS Spatial Distribution Model to Determine the Possibility of Runoff Water Harvesting in Dry Regions: Wadi Watir in Sinai as a Case Study
Water 2021, 13(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060804 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Runoff water harvesting (RWH) is considered as an important tool for overcoming water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. The present work focuses on identifying potential RWH sites in the Wadi Watir watershed in the south-eastern part of the Sinai Peninsula. This was [...] Read more.
Runoff water harvesting (RWH) is considered as an important tool for overcoming water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. The present work focuses on identifying potential RWH sites in the Wadi Watir watershed in the south-eastern part of the Sinai Peninsula. This was carried out by means of significant integration of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), distributed spatial model, geographical information system (GIS), watershed modeling system (WMS), and remote sensing techniques (RS). This integration of modern research tools has its own bearing on the accurate identification of optimum RWH sites, which could be relied upon in developmental planning for arid environments. Eight effective RWH parameters were chosen to apply a multi-parametric decision spatial model (MPDSM), namely the overland flow distance, volume of annual flood, drainage density, maximum flow distance, infiltration number, watershed slope, watershed area and watershed length. These parameters were used within ArcGIS 10.1© as thematic layers to build a distributed hydrological spatial model. The weights and ranks of each model parameter were assigned according to their magnitude of contribution in the RWH potentiality mapping using a pairwise correlation matrix verified by calculating the consistency ratio (CR), which governs the reliability of the model application. The CR value was found to be less than 0.1 (0.069), indicating acceptable consistency and validity for use. The resulting MPDSM map classified the watershed into five categories of RWH potential, ranging from very low to very high. The high and very high classes, which are the most suitable for RWH structures, make up approximately 33.24% of the total watershed area. Accordingly, four retention dams and seven ground cisterns (tanks) were proposed in these areas to collect and store the runoff water, whereby these proposed RWH structures were chosen according to the soil type and current land-use pattern. The resulting MPDSM map was validated using a topographic wetness index (TWI) map, created for the watershed. This integrative and applied approach is an important technique which can be applied in similar arid environments elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Other

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Case Report
A Revised Approach to Flood Damage Estimation in Flood Risk Maps and Flood Risk Management Plans, Poland
Water 2021, 13(19), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192713 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
This article describes the determination of asset values in residential and industrial areas in Poland that can be used in the preparation of flood hazard and risk maps (FRMs) and flood risk management plans (FRMPs). In the Floods Directive’s first cycle of implementation [...] Read more.
This article describes the determination of asset values in residential and industrial areas in Poland that can be used in the preparation of flood hazard and risk maps (FRMs) and flood risk management plans (FRMPs). In the Floods Directive’s first cycle of implementation (2010–2015), German indicators of asset value were adapted to Polish conditions. This approach was used due to the lack of national statistics necessary to determine the value of property. In this study, the asset values in residential and industrial areas were prepared on the basis of the nationwide household wealth survey conducted in 2016 by the Narodowy Bank Polski (the central bank of Poland) and other data available from Statistics Poland. The proposed approach enables the determination of asset values based on real, validated data. The obtained indicators result in higher and more realistic values of the assets of households (buildings with contents) and the assets of companies (fixed assets and stocks) operating in both residential and industrial areas. The proposed approach, as an extension in relation to the first planning cycle, has been implemented in the second cycle of FRMP preparation in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Erratum
Erratum: Mostafa et al. Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt. Water 2021, 13, 1715
Water 2021, 13(14), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141919 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
In the original article, there were mistakes in Figure 7 and Figure 9 as published [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Case Report
Environmental Impact Assessment and Hydraulic Modelling of Different Flood Protection Measures
Water 2021, 13(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060786 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
The most appropriate method to protect settlements and economically important sites from flood hazard, is the implementation of flood protection measures in stream catchments and protected localities, which contribute to reduce the peak flow and distribution of the flood wave over a longer [...] Read more.
The most appropriate method to protect settlements and economically important sites from flood hazard, is the implementation of flood protection measures in stream catchments and protected localities, which contribute to reduce the peak flow and distribution of the flood wave over a longer period of time. If such measures are not realistic or ineffective, it is necessary to focus on flood protection directly on the area of the protected side or its vicinity. Where the lag time between the flood threat detection and actual flood onset is short, one possible measure is to increase the capacity of the watercourse, very often in combination with other flood mitigation measures in the protected area. The engineering approach to flood protection is the subject of many scientific research studies. Permission for flood protection structures depends on their environmental impact assessment (EIA), according to Law no. 24/2002 Coll. on Environmental Impact Assessment in the Slovak Republic, annex no. 8 (list of activities subject to EIA). Based on the EIA, it is possible to select the best alternative of flood protection, i.e., the alternative with the lowest risk impact on the environment. This paper aims to analyse the flood protection measures along the Lukavica stream (central Slovakia), applying hydraulic models. The best alternative with the lowest impact on the environment, assessed using the risk analysis method, consists of detention reservoir construction. An effective combination of environmental impact assessment and hydraulic modelling contribute to the selection of an effective flood protection measure in the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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