Special Issue "Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dušan Žagar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: numerical modelling; circulation; transport of pollutants; sediment transport; bio-geochemical modelling; oil spill modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing environmental awareness, the necessity of preservation of natural habitats and ecosystems, and the need for mitigation of the human impact on various water environments require interdisciplinary approaches and solutions. An improved understanding of the hydrological and geomorphological impact on the hydraulic properties of flow and their influence on biota is necessary for designing environmentally acceptable solutions. Recent scientific advances and practical applications in ecohydraulics have been strongly supported by conceptual, mathematical, and numerical modelling. The steadily increasing CPU and GPU power facilitates development of sophisticated models, application of advanced modeling techniques, and increasingly detailed simulations of both natural phenomena and the impacts of engineering measures on water organisms, thus enabling improvements in conceptualization, application, and optimization of proposed solutions. Such studies have made a significant contribution to our understanding of interactions between flow and biota, and of ecological response to hydrological and hydraulic changes in natural and engineered water environments.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect contributions discussing advanced methods, models and modeling techniques, such as:

  • Application of advanced modeling strategies in ecohydraulics;
  • Development and application of numerical grid- and particle-based models;
  • Development and application of non-numerical and data-driven models;
  • Connecting measurements, physical and numerical models in various scales;
  • Case studies on flow–biota interactions within the framework of river and coastal engineering, hydropower operations, and river and coastline restoration, such as (but not limited to): environmental flow, vegetated flow, passages for organisms, impact of morphodynamic processes on ecosystems, habitat modeling, and ecological response to flow changes.

Prof. Dr. Dušan Žagar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ecohydraulics
  • flow modelling
  • morphodynamics modeling
  • habitat modeling
  • flow–biota interaction
  • environmental flow
  • vegetated flow
  • fish passage

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Ecohydraulics Modelling and Simulation
Water 2021, 13(16), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162172 - 08 Aug 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Ecohydraulics, the interdiscipline of ecology and hydraulics, has been rapidly developing and receiving ever-growing attention both in hydraulic research efforts and in environmentally oriented professional and lay communities in recent years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation)

Research

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Article
3-D Numerical Study of a Bottom Ramp Fish Passage Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Water 2021, 13(11), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111595 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Worldwide, the overwhelming number of man-made barriers in fluvial systems has been identified as one of the major causes of the reported staggering average declines of migratory fish. Fish passages have been shown to help mitigate such problems. Close-to-nature types of fish passages, [...] Read more.
Worldwide, the overwhelming number of man-made barriers in fluvial systems has been identified as one of the major causes of the reported staggering average declines of migratory fish. Fish passages have been shown to help mitigate such problems. Close-to-nature types of fish passages, such as bottom ramps, bypass channels, and fish ramps can be used to minimize the impact of artificial steep drops (e.g., weirs) on the migration of aquatic fauna, especially in cases of low-head barriers. This study focuses on the characterization of the flow pattern in a bottom ramp. A 3-D numerical model based on the meshless smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method was successfully validated and then employed for the simulation of turbulent free-surface flow in a straight channel with complex geometry. The effects of bed roughness, channel slope, and flow rate were quantified in terms of flow depth, velocity fields, and area‒velocity ratios. During the study, several new tools were developed, leading to new functionalities in pre-processing, solver, and post-processing which increase the applicability of DualSPHysics in the field of eco-hydraulics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation)
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Article
Bulk Drag Predictions of Riparian Arundo donax Stands through UAV-Acquired Multispectral Images
Water 2021, 13(10), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101333 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
Estimating the main hydrodynamic features of real vegetated water bodies is crucial to assure a balance between their hydraulic conveyance and environmental quality. Riparian vegetation stands have a high impact on vegetated channels. The present work has the aim to integrate riparian vegetation’s [...] Read more.
Estimating the main hydrodynamic features of real vegetated water bodies is crucial to assure a balance between their hydraulic conveyance and environmental quality. Riparian vegetation stands have a high impact on vegetated channels. The present work has the aim to integrate riparian vegetation’s reflectance indices and hydrodynamics of real vegetated water flows to assess the impact of riparian vegetation morphometry on bulk drag coefficients distribution along an abandoned vegetated drainage channel fully covered by 9–10 m high Arundo donax (commonly known as giant reed) stands, starting from flow average velocities measurements at 30 cross-sections identified along the channel. A map of riparian vegetation cover was obtained through digital processing of Unnamed Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-acquired multispectral images, which represent a fast way to observe riparian plants’ traits in hardly accessible areas such as vegetated water bodies in natural conditions. In this study, the portion of riparian plants effectively interacting with flow was expressed in terms of ground-based Leaf Area Index measurements (LAI), which easily related to UAV-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The comparative analysis between Arundo donax stands NDVI and LAI map enabled the analysis of the impact of UAV-acquired multispectral imagery on bulk drag predictions along the vegetated drainage channel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation)
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Article
Numerical Study on the Hydraulic Properties of Flow over Different Pooled Stepped Spillways
Water 2021, 13(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050710 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
This work presents numerical simulations carried out to study the influence of geometric characteristics of pooled steps on the energy dissipation performance, flow patterns properties, velocity rates, and pressure distributions over a spillway. The localization of the inception point of air entrainment was [...] Read more.
This work presents numerical simulations carried out to study the influence of geometric characteristics of pooled steps on the energy dissipation performance, flow patterns properties, velocity rates, and pressure distributions over a spillway. The localization of the inception point of air entrainment was also assessed, being a key design parameter of spillways. With this aim, different configurations of steps were taken in account, including flat, pooled, and notch pooled types. The computational procedure was first validated with experimental results from the literature and then used to test the hydraulic behavior derived from different geometric configurations. The flat step configuration showed the best energy dissipation performance as compared with other configurations. With the notched pooled step configuration, the efficiency performance of the pooled structure improved by about 5.8%. The interfacial velocities of the flat stepped spillway were smaller than those of the pooled structure. The pressure value at the beginning of the step in the pooled configuration was larger than the flat configuration, while for the notched pool the maximum pressure values decreased near the step pool. Pool configuration (simple or notched) did not have a significant influence on the location of air entrainment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation)
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Article
Relationship between Morphological Characteristics and Quality of Aquatic Habitat in Mountain Streams of Slovakia
Water 2021, 13(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020142 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
This study evaluated the relationship between abiotic flow characteristics and habitat quality. Habitat quality was assessed using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), which uses bioindication. Brown trout was selected as a bioindicator because of its sensitivity to morphological changes and its occurrence [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the relationship between abiotic flow characteristics and habitat quality. Habitat quality was assessed using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), which uses bioindication. Brown trout was selected as a bioindicator because of its sensitivity to morphological changes and its occurrence in sufficient reference reaches. The correlation between the morphological characteristics of the stream and the area-weighted suitability (AWS), which represents habitat quality, was evaluated. Fifty-nine reference reaches of fifty-two mountain and piedmont streams in Slovakia were analysed. The correlation analysis demonstrated the strongest relationship between the AWS and the stream depth and width. The relationship between the water surface area and the AWS indicated that, for mountain streams, there is a significantly increasing trend of the AWS value with increasing surface area. Considering piedmont streams, the AWS variation with a change in the water-surface area was minimal. These results can form the basis for deriving regression equations to determine habitat quality. Such a procedure can significantly simplify the evaluation of the quality of aquatic habitat, making it much more accessible for design practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation)
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Review

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Review
A Review of River Oil Spill Modeling
Water 2021, 13(12), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121620 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
River oil spills are generally more frequent and pose greater environmental and public health risk than coastal and offshore oil spills. However, the river oil spill research has received a negligible amount of academic attention in the past three decades, while at the [...] Read more.
River oil spills are generally more frequent and pose greater environmental and public health risk than coastal and offshore oil spills. However, the river oil spill research has received a negligible amount of academic attention in the past three decades, while at the same time the coastal and offshore oil spill research has expanded and evolved tremendously. This paper provides the state-of-the-art review of river oil spill modeling and summarizes the developments in the field from 1994 to present. The review has revealed that the majority of the gaps in knowledge still remain. Thus, there is a need for (i) experimental studies in order to develop and validate new models and better understand the main physicochemical processes, (ii) studies on inter-linking of the governing processes, such as hydrodynamics, advection–dispersion, and weathering processes, (iii) adaptation and validation of coastal and offshore oil spill models for applications in riverine environments, and (iv) development of river oil spill remote sensing systems and detection techniques. Finally, there is a need to more actively promote the importance of river oil spill research and modeling in the context of environmental and public health protection, which would form the basis for obtaining more research funding and thus more academic attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics Modeling and Simulation)
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