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Article

Design of Indicators of Circular Economy as Instruments for the Evaluation of Sustainability and Efficiency in Wastewater from Pig Farming Industry

1
Department of Management, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Faculty of Business and Management, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, 7500912 Santiago, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2017, 9(9), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090653
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Circular economy intends to turn waste into resources that can be reintroduced into the production process, eliminating the negative externalities from it. The impact of pig manure on the environment is one of the main challenges in agriculture. The high amount of pig manure coming from the pig farming industry complicates the management of this type of effluents, leading to a serious impact on the environment, as it pollutes the soil, the water, and the air. The concept of the indicator of circular economy was introduced to evaluate the degree of approximation of the pig manure treatment process to the circular economy model. In light of this, these indicators showed the possibility of obtaining 0.97 m3 water h−1, 49.40 kg biofertilizer h−1, and 5.33 m3 biogas h−1 per 1 m3 pig manure h−1 treated, allowing us to assess the minimization of waste generation and the efficiency of the use of resources. By applying an anaerobic digestion process to treat pig manure, reductions of water and natural gas consumptions were 47.01% and 5.33%, respectively, which leads to a reduction in emissions of 171.98 kg CO2 h−1. Consequently, pig manure can be considered as a technological nutrient that is reintroduced into the productive system, enabling the recovery of energy, water, and biofertilizer contained therein. View Full-Text
Keywords: circular economy; energy; indicator; pig manure; technological nutrient; wastewater circular economy; energy; indicator; pig manure; technological nutrient; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molina-Moreno, V.; Leyva-Díaz, J.C.; Llorens-Montes, F.J.; Cortés-García, F.J. Design of Indicators of Circular Economy as Instruments for the Evaluation of Sustainability and Efficiency in Wastewater from Pig Farming Industry. Water 2017, 9, 653. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090653

AMA Style

Molina-Moreno V, Leyva-Díaz JC, Llorens-Montes FJ, Cortés-García FJ. Design of Indicators of Circular Economy as Instruments for the Evaluation of Sustainability and Efficiency in Wastewater from Pig Farming Industry. Water. 2017; 9(9):653. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090653

Chicago/Turabian Style

Molina-Moreno, Valentín, Juan C. Leyva-Díaz, Francisco J. Llorens-Montes, and Francisco J. Cortés-García 2017. "Design of Indicators of Circular Economy as Instruments for the Evaluation of Sustainability and Efficiency in Wastewater from Pig Farming Industry" Water 9, no. 9: 653. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090653

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