Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2024) | Viewed by 54477

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: nature-based solutions for stormwater management; analytical probabilistic models; sustainable water resources management
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Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel
Interests: water resources systems analysis; water distribution systems; surface hydrology; optimization; management
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Department of Civil Engineering and Construction, Atlantic Technological University, Sligo, Ireland
Interests: sustainable drainage systems; community water management; urban water quality

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Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genova, 16145 Genoa, Italy
Interests: urban drainage modelling; source control measures; sustainable solutions for urban drainage systems; water quality; water resources management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rainwater harvesting is an ancient water supply practice, and still represents a primary water source for a large proportion of inhabitants in developing countries. In developed nations, it is always encouraged as it benefits water supply, urban drainage systems, and environmental ecosystems.

Rainwater harvesting and reuse represent an alternative source of water supply, particularly relevant during water scarcity due to climate change and water demand growth.

It also helps to mitigate urban flooding, reducing peak runoffs and volumes discharged into the drainage system, contributing to the achievements of the hydrologic invariance target. Moreover, it limits the activation of combined stormwater overflows and the pollution of receiving water bodies, and reduces the withdrawal from high-quality sources.

Depending on the treatment applied, rainwater can satisfy different water demands (domestic, agricultural, industrial, etc.). New technologies can make rainwater harvesting and reuse more appealing and suitable, thus aiding in the growth of this best management practice which is fundamental for the transition towards water-sensitive, sustainable, and resilient cities.

The scope of the Special Issue is to collect studies on these topics. Especially welcomed will be contributions about new solutions considering future scenarios.

Dr. Anita Raimondi
Prof. Dr. Avi Ostfeld
Dr. Ruth Quinn
Dr. Ilaria Gnecco
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • rainwater harvesting and treatment
  • rainwater harvesting management
  • sustainable water resources management
  • water sensitive and resilient cities
  • stormwater runoff control and management
  • sustainable urban drainage systems
  • water supply
  • water scarcity
  • nature-based solutions
  • analytical-probabilistic modelling

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 4023 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Water Tariff on the Economic Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting for Use in Residential Buildings
by Aline Eloize Borgert and Enedir Ghisi
Water 2024, 16(7), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16071058 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
This study aims to analyse the technical viability and economic feasibility of rainwater-harvesting systems for single- and multifamily residential buildings in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. Simulations were conducted for representative buildings in the city under different water-usage scenarios and system designs, in [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyse the technical viability and economic feasibility of rainwater-harvesting systems for single- and multifamily residential buildings in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. Simulations were conducted for representative buildings in the city under different water-usage scenarios and system designs, in a total of 36 simulation scenarios. An economic analysis was performed for four scenarios over a twenty-year period. Both initial and operational costs were considered, and the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback were used as feasibility indicators. For houses, between 60.1% and 74.8% of the cases were economically feasible, achieving a discounted payback period ranging from 6.2 to 8.6 years. For flats, between 57.8% and 64.2% of the cases were economically feasible, achieving a discounted payback period ranging from 4.8 to 5.6 years. As the water tariff in the city underwent changes recently, the former and current tariff formats were compared. The current tariff format provides more economic benefits for saving potable water, and leads to a higher net present value and a shorter discounted payback period. This research stands out from previous studies as it examines a new scenario in the use of rainwater-harvesting systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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28 pages, 6099 KiB  
Article
Investigating First Flush Occurrence in Agro-Urban Environments in Northern Italy
by Majid Niazkar, Margherita Evangelisti, Cosimo Peruzzi, Andrea Galli, Marco Maglionico and Daniele Masseroni
Water 2024, 16(6), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060891 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
The first flush (FF) phenomenon is commonly associated with a relevant load of pollutants, raising concerns about water quality and environmental management in agro-urban areas. An FF event can potentially transport contaminated water into a receiving water body by activating combined sewer overflow [...] Read more.
The first flush (FF) phenomenon is commonly associated with a relevant load of pollutants, raising concerns about water quality and environmental management in agro-urban areas. An FF event can potentially transport contaminated water into a receiving water body by activating combined sewer overflow (CSO) systems present in the drainage urban network. Therefore, accurately characterizing FF events is crucial for the effective management of sewer systems and for limiting environmental degradation. Given the ongoing controversy in the literature regarding the delineation of FF event occurrences, there is an unavoidable necessity for further investigations, especially experimental-based ones. This study presents the outcomes of an almost two-year field campaign focused on assessing the water quantity and quality of two combined sewer systems in Northern Italy. For this purpose, various hydro-meteorological variables, including precipitation, flow rate, temperature, and solar radiation, in addition to water quality analytics, were measured continuously to capture stormwater events. Throughout the monitoring period, sixteen stormwater events were identified and analyzed using five indices usually adopted in the literature to identify FF occurrences. The results indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between the mass first flush ratios calculated for nutrients and three factors, including maximum rainfall intensity, maximum flow rate, and antecedent dry weather period. Furthermore, rainfall duration was found to possess a strong negative correlation with the mass first flush ratios calculated for nutrients. However, for the same rainfall event, the occurrence of FF has never been unanimously confirmed by the indices examined in this study. Moreover, different macro-groups of pollutants can behave differently. Thus, it becomes apparent that relying solely on a priori analyses, without the support of data from experimental monitoring campaigns, poses a risk when designing actions for the mitigation of FF occurrences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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15 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Performance of Detention Basins and Rainwater Harvesting Systems Using Real-Time Controls with Rainfall Forecasts
by Margherita Altobelli, Margherita Evangelisti and Marco Maglionico
Water 2024, 16(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010071 - 24 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
Climate change and an increase in urbanization are severely testing urban drainage systems; at the same time, population growth is leading to an increase in demand for water resources, while climate change is more likely to reduce the amount of water that is [...] Read more.
Climate change and an increase in urbanization are severely testing urban drainage systems; at the same time, population growth is leading to an increase in demand for water resources, while climate change is more likely to reduce the amount of water that is available to meet this demand. The present study finds a solution to both problems by assuming a hybrid use of detention basins, i.e., providing a real-time control system (RTC) for the outfall discharge managed according to the rainfall forecast and the water level in the tank, to reuse rainwater for non-potable use and, at the same time, to guarantee the hydraulic protection of the downstream system. Twenty-seven scenarios were simulated using the numerical model SWMM 5.1, assuming different types of controls on the discharge. The simulations show a non-potable water-saving efficiency from a minimum of 32% to a maximum of 90%, and the reduction in volume discharged is between 11% and 31%, while the peak flow rate varies more significantly depending on the type of control used. These results highlight the detention basins’ potential deriving from the hybrid use of this system with rainwater harvesting systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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18 pages, 5727 KiB  
Article
Ground-Runoff Harvesting to Increase Water Availability in Isolated Households on Hilly Mediterranean Islands: A Case Study in a Micro-Catchment of Ibiza (Spain)
by Daniele Pedretti, Inés Roig Palomeque and Stefan Meier
Water 2023, 15(24), 4317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244317 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Mediterranean islands suffer from a lack of freshwater due to persistent and recursive droughts, limited groundwater availability and mass tourism. In Ibiza (Spain), private estates disconnected from the water distribution network consume about 21% of the total freshwater demand on the island. We [...] Read more.
Mediterranean islands suffer from a lack of freshwater due to persistent and recursive droughts, limited groundwater availability and mass tourism. In Ibiza (Spain), private estates disconnected from the water distribution network consume about 21% of the total freshwater demand on the island. We conducted a study to evaluate the potential of ground-runoff harvesting (GRH) as a sustainable and inexpensive solution to increase freshwater availability in isolated households in Ibiza. The study involved an innovative modular tank of 40 m3 buried in the garden of a private property. The tank intercepted runoff forming in a 12,300 m2 hilly micro-catchment. We found that an extreme rainfall event with an intensity of 65 mm/h was able to create sufficient runoff to fill up the tank in one hour. A curve-number-based rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the experimental results and to obtain a first-cut estimation of the potential of GRH at the scale of the island. The analysis indicates that, if installed in all forest areas in Ibiza with a similar slope to the study area, a volume of 1.31×106 m3 of freshwater could be harvested per year on the island just from extreme precipitation events. Such a volume of water is equivalent to about 5% of the island’s total freshwater budget. The study concludes that GRH is a highly valuable, yet still unexploited opportunity to save large freshwater volumes in dry-climate areas like Ibiza. GRH should be promoted across Mediterranean islands, and it can be easily incorporated within local water regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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12 pages, 4436 KiB  
Article
Decentralized Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Rural and Remote Areas of Semi-arid Regions
by Ibrahim Hendy, Martina Zelenakova, Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik, Yasser Salama and Mohamed Abu-hashim
Water 2023, 15(12), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122281 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
Vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) are an innovative and sustainable nature-based technology for wastewater treatment in rural areas. This work aimed to evaluate the treatment performance of VFCWs using real wastewater, which can provide more accurate and reliable results compared with field-based experiments, and [...] Read more.
Vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) are an innovative and sustainable nature-based technology for wastewater treatment in rural areas. This work aimed to evaluate the treatment performance of VFCWs using real wastewater, which can provide more accurate and reliable results compared with field-based experiments, and to investigate the use of Paulownia trees in VFCWs for wastewater treatment. To compare the efficiency of the plants based on the treatment performance of the VFCWs, three units were prepared and composed of Paulownia, the commonly used Phragmites Australis, and an unplanted unit used as a control during the experimental program. The results show significant reductions in both the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) levels for both planted units, with removal ratios for COD and BOD5 of 60% to 98%, respectively. Both Paulownia and Phragmites Australis significantly reduced the levels of COD and BOD5 in the effluent, with removal percentages ranging from 57.1% to 98% for COD and 49.1% to 98% for BOD5. The control unit, without plantings, showed a lower but still significant removal percentage for both COD (from 55.1% to 96.1%) and BOD5 (from 48.3% to 97.8%). Thus, the results reveal that the efficiency of constructed wetlands can be significantly enhanced by the presence of suitable plant species, such as Paulownia and Phragmites Australis, and constructed wetlands can be a viable and cost-effective option for the treatment of wastewater in various settings, with the added benefit of using the relevant biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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14 pages, 6674 KiB  
Article
Using Stormwater in a Sponge City as a New Wing of Urban Water Supply—A Case Study
by Stephan Köster, Greta Hadler, Lea Opitz and Anna Thoms
Water 2023, 15(10), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101893 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Rapid and even disruptive innovations are needed to make cities fit for the future. The particular challenge will be to transform existing urban spaces in order to increase climate resilience. Along these lines, rainwater harvesting has taken place insufficiently to date, even when [...] Read more.
Rapid and even disruptive innovations are needed to make cities fit for the future. The particular challenge will be to transform existing urban spaces in order to increase climate resilience. Along these lines, rainwater harvesting has taken place insufficiently to date, even when Sponge City concepts are implemented. Thus, the concept presented here addresses existing urban neighborhoods and proposes to collect rainwater from nearby rooftops and treat it in decentral treatment units called “City Water Hubs” (CWH) equipped with modular coupled low-energy technologies to produce various customized “City Water” qualities, and store it until it can be used or distributed. A feasibility study with a focus on the campus area at the main building of the Leibniz University of Hannover, the determined rainwater qualities, and the results from investigations with two laboratory test plants provided the basis for the technical design of the pursued concept. The feasibility study showed how sufficient rainwater for irrigation purposes can be made available for the listed large university park even under extreme dry and heat wave conditions. If large portions of the roof area (11,737 m2) of the university’s main building were activated, even in a dry year with only 49.8% of the average precipitation, only 19.8% of the harvested stormwater would be needed for irrigation. The rainwater samples showed TSS concentrations of up to 7.54 mg/L, COD of up to 58.5 mg/L, and NH4 of up to 2.21 mg/L, which was in line with data reported in the literature. The treatment technologies used for the two pilot plants are proven approaches for stormwater treatment and were composed as follows: (1) gravity-driven membrane filtration (GDM) and (2) slow sand filter with integrated activated carbon (AC) layer. The treatment with both (1) and (2) clearly improved the rainwater quality. The GDM reduced turbidity by 90.4% and the Sand/AC filter by 20.4%. With regard to COD, the studies for GDM did not show a clear elimination trend; the Sand/AC filter reduced the COD by 77%. Taken together, decentralized low-energy rainwater treatment can reliably provide quality-assured City Water for any specific use. Regarding the treatment design, GDM is preferable and can be better operated with downstream UV disinfection, which might be needed to reduce the pathogenic load, e.g., for local heat control measures. The research steps presented here will pioneer the development of a city-wide rainwater harvesting infrastructure on the way of establishing stormwater as a resource for a new wing of urban water supply. The presented findings will now result in the implementation of a full-scale CHW on the campus to ensure long-term irrigation of the listed park, relieving the public drinking water supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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16 pages, 3775 KiB  
Article
Extensive Green Roofs: Different Time Approaches to Runoff Coefficient Determination
by Cristina M. Monteiro, Cristina Santos and Paula M. L. Castro
Water 2023, 15(10), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101852 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Stormwater runoff in green roofs (GRs) is represented by the runoff coefficient, which is fundamental to assess their hydraulic performance and to design the drainage systems downstream. Runoff coefficient values in newly installed GR systems should be estimated by models that must be [...] Read more.
Stormwater runoff in green roofs (GRs) is represented by the runoff coefficient, which is fundamental to assess their hydraulic performance and to design the drainage systems downstream. Runoff coefficient values in newly installed GR systems should be estimated by models that must be feasible and reproduce the retention behavior as realistically as possible, being thus adjusted to each season and climate region. In this study, the suitability of a previously developed model for runoff coefficient determination is assessed using experimental data, and registered over a 1 year period. Results showed that the previously developed model does not quite fit the experimental data obtained in the present study, which was developed in a distinct year with different climate conditions, revealing the need to develop a new model with a better adjustment, and taking into consideration other variables besides temperature and precipitation (e.g., early-stage moisture conditions of the GR matrix and climate of the study area). Runoff coefficient values were also determined with different time periods (monthly, weekly, and per rain event) to assess the most adequate approach, considering the practical uses of this coefficient. The monthly determination approach resulted in lower runoff coefficient values (0–0.46) than the weekly or per rain event (0.017–0.764) determination. When applied to a long-term performance analysis, this study showed no significant differences when using the monthly, weekly, or per rain event runoff, resulting on a variation of only 0.9 m3 of annual runoff. This indicates that the use of monthly values for runoff coefficient, although not suitable for sizing drainage systems, might be used to estimate their long-term performance. Overall, this pilot extensive GR of 0.4 m2 presented an annual retention volume of 469.3 L, corresponding to a retention rate of 89.6%, in a year with a total precipitation of 1089 mm. The assessment of different time scales for runoff coefficient determination is a major contribution for future GR performance assessments, and a fundamental decision support tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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27 pages, 5942 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Studies of Rainwater Harvesting System for Ablution Purposes
by Fadhlul Wafi Awg Kapli, Fatin Amanina Azis, Hazwani Suhaimi, Norazanita Shamsuddin and Pg Emeroylariffion Abas
Water 2023, 15(9), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091686 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
For countries with an abundance of rain, there is definite potential to implement a rainwater harvesting system for different applications. This paper describes feasibility studies of an open-pond rainwater harvesting system for ablution purposes, analysing the quality of harvested rainwater and formulating a [...] Read more.
For countries with an abundance of rain, there is definite potential to implement a rainwater harvesting system for different applications. This paper describes feasibility studies of an open-pond rainwater harvesting system for ablution purposes, analysing the quality of harvested rainwater and formulating a rainwater harvesting model with suitable performance measures. The formulated model can be used to analyse the feasibility of the system in any locality by inputting local meteorological data. Quality analysis has shown that the harvested rainwater can be used safely for ablution purposes, albeit with a slightly acidic pH below 6.5. At a depth of 1.0 m and using the current pond configuration of a local mosque, the reliability of the system is 62.5% (228 days per year), and the amount of water saved is 345 m3, which is 60.7% of the water demand. It has been shown that a pond surface area of 60–70 m2 provides optimum reliability and water saving, and more water savings can be expected with a more economical usage of water during ablution. These results indicate the feasibility of implementing a rainwater harvesting system for ablution purposes in religious institutions to help curb the water shortage crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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23 pages, 3565 KiB  
Article
Influence of Design Variables on the Financial Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting Systems
by Rodrigo Novais Istchuk and Enedir Ghisi
Water 2023, 15(6), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061112 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Extensive implementation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems can promote substantial improvement in urban water resource management. Therefore, establishing the financial feasibility of RWH systems is imperative for their dissemination. This study evaluated the influence of rainfall time series indicators (average annual rainfall, seasonality [...] Read more.
Extensive implementation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems can promote substantial improvement in urban water resource management. Therefore, establishing the financial feasibility of RWH systems is imperative for their dissemination. This study evaluated the influence of rainfall time series indicators (average annual rainfall, seasonality index and behaviour of periods without precipitation) and design variables (catchment area, rainwater demand, number of inhabitants, potable water demand and rainwater tank size) on the financial feasibility of RWH systems in eight Brazilian cities. Correlations between rainfall indicators and financial feasibility were introduced, along with sensitivity analysis of design variables. Financial feasibility was obtained in 30% to 70% of the simulated scenarios. Initial investment and operating costs varied significantly among the eight cities according to local prices. Systems with a catchment area of 200 m2 were capable of supplying, on average, 90.5% of the maximum rainwater consumption observed in this study. Local variation of potable water tariff schemes affected the financial feasibility of RWH systems. The number of inhabitants was the most influential design variable on the financial feasibility of RWH systems, followed by the rainwater tank size. Places with lower rainfall seasonality indexes and lower incidence and duration of dry periods are likely to lead to greater financial feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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21 pages, 12355 KiB  
Article
Capacity Optimization of Rainwater Harvesting Systems Based on a Cost–Benefit Analysis: A Financial Support Program Review and Parametric Sensitivity Analysis
by Youngkyu Jin, Sangho Lee, Taeuk Kang, Jongpyo Park and Yeulwoo Kim
Water 2023, 15(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010186 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
Water risk has been continuously rising due to climate change and ownership disputes of water resources. Dam construction to secure water resources may lead to environmental problems and upstream immersion. On the other hand, rainwater harvesting systems can effectively supply water at a [...] Read more.
Water risk has been continuously rising due to climate change and ownership disputes of water resources. Dam construction to secure water resources may lead to environmental problems and upstream immersion. On the other hand, rainwater harvesting systems can effectively supply water at a low cost, although economic efficiency of these systems is still debatable. This study evaluates financial support programs to promote installation of rainwater harvesting systems, increasing economic feasibility. Based on a cost–benefit analysis, capacity optimization methods are further suggested. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the relative importance among uncertain parameters such as inflation and discount rates. In doing so, priority factors to consider in the design of rainwater harvesting systems are ultimately identified. A net present value, although it is sensitive to the inflation rate, is shown to be more appropriate to estimate the economic efficiency of rainwater harvesting system, compared to the typical cost–benefit ratio. Because the high future value overestimates the economic feasibility of rainwater harvesting systems, proper inflation rates should be applied. All in all, a funding program to promote rainwater harvesting systems significantly increases the benefits. Thus, national financial support policies are recommended to ensure economic feasibility of rainwater harvesting systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 857 KiB  
Review
The Importance of Rainwater Harvesting and Its Usage Possibilities: Antalya Example (Turkey)
by Hasan Ertop, Joanna Kocięcka, Atilgan Atilgan, Daniel Liberacki, Marcin Niemiec and Roman Rolbiecki
Water 2023, 15(12), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122194 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 21033
Abstract
The significance and effective use of water, one of the most basic requirements for sustaining vital activities, is gaining importance every day. Population growth and unprogrammed industrialization accelerate the consumption of available water resources. However, drought, as a result of climate change, poses [...] Read more.
The significance and effective use of water, one of the most basic requirements for sustaining vital activities, is gaining importance every day. Population growth and unprogrammed industrialization accelerate the consumption of available water resources. However, drought, as a result of climate change, poses a threat to water resources. Factors such as the exhaustibility of water resources, rapid population growth, unscheduled industrialization and drought increase the tendency towards alternative water resources. Rainwater harvesting is based on the principle of using the rainwater falling into the regions after it is stored. Water collected through rain harvesting can be utilized in many different areas, such as agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation and domestic use. Among agricultural activities, the idea of water harvesting in greenhouse areas comes to the fore. Due to the gutters on the greenhouse roofs, water can be stored. In Antalya, which has about half of the greenhouses in Turkey, the amount of water in the rain harvest that can be obtained in greenhouses is 224,992,795.8 m3 per year. Monthly calculations throughout the year showed that the minimum water can be harvested in August (938,447.53 m3) and the maximum (54,771,210 m3) in December. Therefore, it is thought that some plant water consumption can be met by building sufficient storage in areas close to the greenhouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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21 pages, 995 KiB  
Review
Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment: State of the Art and Perspectives
by Anita Raimondi, Ruth Quinn, Gopinathan R. Abhijith, Gianfranco Becciu and Avi Ostfeld
Water 2023, 15(8), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081518 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 15182
Abstract
Rainwater harvesting is an ancient practice currently used for flood and drought risk mitigation. It is a well-known solution with different levels of advanced technology associated with it. This study is aimed at reviewing the state of the art with regards to rainwater [...] Read more.
Rainwater harvesting is an ancient practice currently used for flood and drought risk mitigation. It is a well-known solution with different levels of advanced technology associated with it. This study is aimed at reviewing the state of the art with regards to rainwater harvesting, treatment, and management. It focuses on the environmental and social benefits of rainwater harvesting and links them to the Sustainable Development Goals. The review identifies characteristics of laws and regulations that encourage this practice and their current limitations. It presents methodologies to design a rainwater harvesting system, describes the influence of design variables, and the impact of temporal and spatial scales on the system’s performance. The manuscript also analyzes the most advanced technologies for rainwater treatment, providing insights into various processes by discussing diverse physiochemical and biological technology options that are in the early stages of development. Finally, it introduces trends and perspectives which serve to increase rainwater harvesting, water reuse, and effective management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment)
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