Special Issue "Groundwater Depletion: Current Trends and Future Challenges to Mitigate the Phenomenon"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2023 | Viewed by 2888

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nerantzis Kazakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: groundwater modelling; groundwater vulnerability assessment; hydrogeochemistry; hydrogeophysics; isotope hydrology; management of aquifer recharge; water resources management; floods; climate change impacts on water resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Micòl Mastrocicco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Interests: water resources management and protection in the coastal plains, with a focus on water and nitrogen balance at basin scale and salinization processes; characterization and monitoring of dissolved contaminants in aquifers via different assessment methods; implementation of density-dependent groundwater flow models and reactive transport models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Konstantinos Chalikakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
EMMAH, INRAE, Avignon Université, 84916 Avignon, France
Interests: hydrogeology; Hydrogeophysics; groundwater resources exploration; hydrosystems sedimentary formations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is a primary source of drinking water for almost two billion people worldwide. Moreover, it is critically important for energy, food security, human health, and ecosystems. Yet, depletion of groundwater reserves is a common phenomenon in both humid and semi-arid regions of the world. The phenomenon of groundwater depletion (GD) occurs when extraction from an aquifer exceeds the recharge, with the extent of the depletion effects also being determined by the aquifer type and its socioeconomic framework. Inevitably, depletion leads to increased distributed water costs, water-related conflicts, and up- and downstream ecosystem decline as aquifer’s degradation (i.e. groundwater flow alteration, seawater intrusion). Although groundwater depletion has been documented at both regional and global scales, specific spatiotemporal characteristics need to be further studied and quantified to design and apply strategies allowing us to mitigate the phenomenon. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the emergence of a) adequate integrated strategies to mitigate GD at both regional and local scales through b) advanced spatiotemporal monitoring allowing quantification of the factors triggering/accelerating GD.

The Guest Editors’ ambition for this Special Issue is to encompass articles dealing with:

  • Efficiency/Adequacy of global and regional strategies.
  • Scale effect: from global scale to regional and aquifer scale.
  • Spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater depletion.
  • The role of snow variability in groundwater depletion.
  • The importance of temporal (from seasonal to high frequency monitoring) and spatial scales.
  • Managed/Artificial aquifer recharge for mitigate groundwater depletion.
  • Groundwater modelling impact and adequacy to study groundwater depletion.
  • Integrated strategies for groundwater quantity and quality protection.
  • Linking protection zone delineation of springs/wells with groundwater depletion.
  • Impacts of groundwater depletion in groundwater quality.
  • The role of the critical zone in groundwater depletion.
  • The role of mis-management in groundwater depletion.
  • The role of climate change/variability in groundwater depletion.

Link With Projects and Conference

The Special Issue is linked with both an international conference and a research project:

a) "Groundwater depletion. Are Eco-friendly Energy Recharge Dams a solution?" founded by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (H.F.R.I.) under the “Second Call for H.F.R.I. Research Projects to support Post-Doctoral Researchers” (https://groundwater-ecodams.web.auth.gr/), which started in February 2021 and ends August 2023;

b) The 12th International Hydrogeological Conference organized by the Association of Geologists and Mining Engineers of Cyprus in collaboration with the Hellenic Committee of Hydrogeology (https://www.hydrogeologyconference2022.com.cy/en/) on 20–22 of March 2022, in Nicosia (Lefkosia), Cyprus.

Dr. Nerantzis Kazakis
Dr. Micol Mastrocicco
Dr. Konstantinos Chalikakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • groundwater simulation
  • satellite observation
  • climate change/variability
  • groundwater overexploitation
  • groundwater quality
  • protection zone delineation of springs/wells
  • policy and sustainability
  • extreme hydrological events

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Repurposing of a Closed Surface Coal Mine with Respect to Pit Lake Development
Water 2022, 14(21), 3558; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213558 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
In the coal phase-out era, achieving sustainable mine closure is significant and prioritizes targets for the mining industry. In this study, the already closed lignite mine of Kardia, North Greece, is investigated, where the mine void left is naturally filled with water. The [...] Read more.
In the coal phase-out era, achieving sustainable mine closure is significant and prioritizes targets for the mining industry. In this study, the already closed lignite mine of Kardia, North Greece, is investigated, where the mine void left is naturally filled with water. The viability of different repurposing land uses is evaluated, and the natural water level development inside the mine pit is investigated concerning its future uses. The potential for solar photovoltaic (PV) panels developed on mining land and its surrounding area is evaluated in combination with the application of pumped hydro storage (PHS) technology, utilizing pit lake water. Except for electricity system planning, other end-uses that offer multiple, mutually reinforcing and lasting benefits are investigated, such as recreation parks, terrestrial wildlife, aquaculture and agriculture. All repurposing scenarios are evaluated with regard to the spatiotemporal evolution of the lake, by generating forecasts of the dependent variables (rainfall and temperature) via linear (autoregressive integrated moving average) and non-linear (artificial neural network) models. The prediction of pit lake natural development redefines the new land use layout and the land repurposing decisions. This is essential for strategic planning, considering the Greek lignite mining industry’s priority regarding transitioning from the current coal-based electricity to renewable energy sources (RES) technology. Full article
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Article
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Groundwater Storage Changes, Controlling Factors, and Management Options over the Transboundary Indus Basin
Water 2022, 14(20), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203254 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Intensive groundwater abstraction has augmented socio-economic development worldwide but threatens the sustainability of groundwater resources. Spatiotemporal analysis of groundwater storage changes is a prerequisite to sustainable water resource management over river basins. To estimate the groundwater storage changes/anomalies (GWCs) in the Indus River [...] Read more.
Intensive groundwater abstraction has augmented socio-economic development worldwide but threatens the sustainability of groundwater resources. Spatiotemporal analysis of groundwater storage changes is a prerequisite to sustainable water resource management over river basins. To estimate the groundwater storage changes/anomalies (GWCs) in the Indus River Basin (IRB), where observation wells are sparse, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, the Global Land Data Assimilation System, and the WaterGAP Hydrological Model data were employed. The groundwater storage changes and controlling factors were investigated at three tier levels (TTLs), i.e., the basin, river reach, and region, to explore their implications on regional water resource management and provide management options at each level. Overall, the IRB groundwater declined from January 2003 to December 2016, with a relatively higher rate during 2003–2009 than during 2010–2016. Spatially, according to a reach-specific analysis, 24%, 14%, and 2% of the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the IRB, respectively, were indicated by a ‘severe groundwater decline’ over the entire period (i.e., 2003–2016). The GRACE-based GWCs were validated with in situ data of two heterogeneous regions, i.e., Kabul River Basin (KRB) and Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC). The analysis showed a correlation (R2) of 0.77 for LBDC and 0.29 for KRB. This study’s results reveal that climatic variations (increase in evapotranspiration); anthropogenic activities, i.e., pumping for irrigation; and water allocations in these regions mainly drive the groundwater storage changes across the Indus Basin. Full article
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Article
Impact of Boundary Conditions Dynamics on Groundwater Budget in the Campania Region (Italy)
Water 2022, 14(16), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162462 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Groundwater budgets and fluxes are affected by human activities and climate change. Numerical models are cost-effective tools to investigate the different components of the hydrologic cycle. In this study, a groundwater flow model of the unconfined aquifers of the Campania region (Italy) has [...] Read more.
Groundwater budgets and fluxes are affected by human activities and climate change. Numerical models are cost-effective tools to investigate the different components of the hydrologic cycle. In this study, a groundwater flow model of the unconfined aquifers of the Campania region (Italy) has been developed and calibrated in Processing Modflow 11, resulting in an accurate assessment of groundwater fluxes and their trends over fifteen years (2000–2015). The model was implemented using a high-resolution grid to capture small hydrogeological features such as wells and rivers and informed by time variable datasets used as boundary conditions (i.e., river and sea levels, aquifer recharge, evapotranspiration, and discharge from adjacent systems). Good calibration and validation performances were achieved for piezometric heads (R2 = 0.958). A set of scenarios was developed using constant boundary conditions (i.e., constant sea-level BC, uniform extinction depth BC), and the outputs were compared, quantitively assessing differences in groundwater fluxes. Simulations pointed out that using time series to inform boundary conditions in the model does not always result in a significant change in the computed fluxes. Overall, non-uniform extinction depth was the most influential condition, while both rivers and sea level conditions barely affected groundwater budgets. In addition, results highlighted the need for an accurate estimation of spatiotemporal variations of both recharge and evapotranspiration, due to their strong seasonal variability and their massive contribution to the hydrogeological cycle. Finally, a marked increase of evapotranspiration fluxes controlled by interannual variability of precipitation and atmospheric temperatures has been quantified over the modelled period. Full article
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Article
Hybrid Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Analysis for Selecting Discrete Preferable Groundwater Recharge Sites
Water 2022, 14(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010107 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
This study proposes a hybrid fuzzy multi-criteria methodology for the selection of the most preferable site for applying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems by utilizing floodwaters. The use of MAR can increase water resources for later water utilization in case of drought. In [...] Read more.
This study proposes a hybrid fuzzy multi-criteria methodology for the selection of the most preferable site for applying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems by utilizing floodwaters. The use of MAR can increase water resources for later water utilization in case of drought. In this multi-criteria problem, seven recharge sites are under consideration, based on nine criteria, aiming to make a final list of their relative ranking. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) based on the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming (LFFP) method is used to determine the weights of criteria. LFFP is an optimization-based method that produces a priority vector from a fuzzy pairwise comparison matrix. Furthermore, fuzzy inference systems (FIS) based on the Mamdani approach are used to estimate the rating of each alternative with respect to the criterion examined, and then the final evaluation of the alternatives is obtained. A FIS is a fuzzy if–then rule-based system where the experts’ qualitative knowledge is translated into numerical reasoning for each individual criterion. The proposed methodology is applied in the aquifer system of the agricultural plain located to the southeast of the city of Xanthi in the Prefecture of Xanthi, NE Greece. Full article
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