Special Issue "Immune Response and Antigen-Specific Personalized Therapeutics in Multiple Sclerosis-the Upcoming Era of Precision Medicine"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2021) | Viewed by 546

Special Issue Editors

Director of Multiple Sclerosis & Demyelinating Diseases Unit and Immunogenetics Laboratory, 1st Department of Neurology of Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aeginition University Hospital, Vas. Sofias Ave 74, 115 28 Athens, Greece
Interests: clinical immunology; immunogenetics; neurology; multiple sclerosis; demyelinating diseases; autoimmunity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
University Research Institute of Maternal and Child Health and Precision Medicine, Medical School, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece
Interests: genetics; epigenetics; exosomes; endocrinology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by T cell-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) , whose exact etiology remains unclear. The autoimmune view of MS is strongly supported by the use of the animal experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, which displays some of the key MS characteristics. For example, during the activation phase, the antigen presenting cells (APCs) migrate to the lymph nodes and present the immunodominant peptide to naïve T cells, and the histocompatibility (MHC) Class II-restricted CD4+ T cells secrete many inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-y, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-17. During the effector phase, CD4+ T cells that recognize antigen proliferate, cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and subsequently activate macrophages and microglia that cause demyelination, oligodendrocyte death, and axon degeneration. As the disease progresses, remyelination and regeneration of oligodendrocyte become inefficient and ultimately fail, resulting in disease progression.

B cells were recently identified as core APCs to T cells, among other functions, involved strongly with immune response in MS pathophysiology, while many B-targeted therapies were introduced and established in MS therapeutics. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays an indispensable role in B cells in signaling from the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen. Thus, recently, various BTK inhibitors (BTKi) are being studied in MS therapeutics, in phase III clinical trials.

Several MS treatment drugs have been effective in reducing immune responses, but their impact on long-term disease progression, accrual of irreversible neurological disability, and the function of the immune system remains largely unclear. The limitation of pharmacological immune-modulating treatments is due to both the relatively non-specific inhibition of immune responses leading to immunosuppression and the failure to repair the damaged myelin in the affected tissues.

Certain genetic, immunogenetic (HLA and non-HLA genes), epigenetic , multi-omic, immunological and gut–brain axis factors play a greater or lesser role in immune response and affect the response to existed immunotherapies in MS.                              

We are only beginning to understand the relationship between various factors to immune response and stratification of patients to responders and non-responders, regarding their response to various immunotherapies. However, our future aim as the neurological community is to select specific patients with MS as candidates for specific immunotherapies, especially personalized vaccination (antigen-specific) agents.

This Special Issue aims at gathering articles on immune response toward personalized therapeutics in MS, through the contribution of MS specialists around the world, taking into account the progress in the field in the last two decades.

Prof. Maria Anagnostouli
Prof. George P. Chrousos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • multiple sclerosis
  • immune response
  • immunopathogenesis
  • T cells
  • B cells
  • antigen-presenting cells
  • microglia
  • antigens
  • antibodies
  • cytokines
  • blood–brain barrier
  • genetics
  • immunogenetics
  • immunotherapies
  • vaccines
  • personalized therapeutics
  • precision medicine

Published Papers

There is no accepted submissions to this special issue at this moment.
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