Decoding Host and Microbial Communications in Infection and Vaccination

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2021) | Viewed by 11324

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Interests: pathology; immunology; microbiology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Interests: immunopathology; metagenomics; metabolomics; infections
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding host-microbial interactions remains a critical paradigm in health and disease. In physiological conditions, the mucosal immune system maintains an environment tolerogenic towards commensal microbes while monitoring for the presence of pathogens. Likewise, commensal microbes communicate with the host for mutual advantages while competing against pathogen colonization. The challenges that follow infection and vaccination intersect and modulate this dialogue between the host and microbes, but how this can be traced down to metabolic pathways and metabolites has remained poorly investigated. In this Special Issue of Vaccines, we would like to dissect host and microbial metabolism in infection and vaccination to identify the molecular pathways that maintain and/or promote mucosal homeostasis, potentially being able to serve as biomarkers for predicting the outcomes of infection and vaccination.

Prof. Dr. Luigina Romani
Dr. Costantini Claudio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • immunity
  • metabolism
  • microbiome
  • host
  • infection

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 4426 KiB  
Article
Mimicking Native Display of CD0873 on Liposomes Augments Its Potency as an Oral Vaccine against Clostridioides difficile
by Cansu Karyal, Panayiota Palazi, Jaime Hughes, Rhys C. Griffiths, Ruby R. Persaud, Patrick J. Tighe, Nicholas J. Mitchell and Ruth Griffin
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121453 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
Mucosal vaccination aims to prevent infection mainly by inducing secretory IgA (sIgA) antibody, which neutralises pathogens and enterotoxins by blocking their attachment to epithelial cells. We previously demonstrated that encapsulated protein antigen CD0873 given orally to hamsters induces neutralising antibodies locally as well [...] Read more.
Mucosal vaccination aims to prevent infection mainly by inducing secretory IgA (sIgA) antibody, which neutralises pathogens and enterotoxins by blocking their attachment to epithelial cells. We previously demonstrated that encapsulated protein antigen CD0873 given orally to hamsters induces neutralising antibodies locally as well as systemically, affording partial protection against Clostridioides difficile infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether displaying CD0873 on liposomes, mimicking native presentation, would drive a stronger antibody response. The recombinant form we previously tested resembles the naturally cleaved lipoprotein commencing with a cysteine but lacking lipid modification. A synthetic lipid (DHPPA-Mal) was designed for conjugation of this protein via its N-terminal cysteine to the maleimide headgroup. DHPPA-Mal was first formulated with liposomes to produce MalLipo; then, CD0873 was conjugated to headgroups protruding from the outer envelope to generate CD0873-MalLipo. The immunogenicity of CD0873-MalLipo was compared to CD0873 in hamsters. Intestinal sIgA and CD0873-specific serum IgG were induced in all vaccinated animals; however, neutralising activity was greatest for the CD0873-MalLipo group. Our data hold great promise for development of a novel oral vaccine platform driving intestinal and systemic immune responses. Full article
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9 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Defective Glyoxalase 1 Contributes to Pathogenic Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis
by Marilena Pariano, Claudio Costantini, Ilaria Santarelli, Matteo Puccetti, Stefano Giovagnoli, Vincenzo N. Talesa, Luigina Romani and Cinzia Antognelli
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111311 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects multiple organs, although a decline in respiratory function represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality. The airways of CF patients are characterized by a chronic inflammatory state to which the receptor for [...] Read more.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects multiple organs, although a decline in respiratory function represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality. The airways of CF patients are characterized by a chronic inflammatory state to which the receptor for advanced glycation end-products greatly contributes. Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) is the major enzyme metabolizing methylglyoxal, a potent precursor of advanced glycation end-products. Its role in CF has never been investigated. We herein resorted to murine and human preclinical models of CF to define the contribution of GLO1 to inflammatory pathology. We found that the expression and activity of GLO1, measured by real-time PCR and Western blot or a specific spectrophotometric assay, respectively, are defective in mice and human bronchial cells from CF patients exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus, a common pathogen in CF, but could be restored upon blockade of interleukin-1 receptor signaling by anakinra in mice. This study suggests that GLO1 contributes to pathology in CF and may be potentially targeted to mitigate inflammation. Full article
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23 pages, 9306 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Characterization of the Innate Immune Pathways Engaged by Live and Inactivated Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus
by Aurora Signorazzi, Jeroen L. A. Pennings, Marilena P. Etna, Malou Noya, Eliana M. Coccia and Anke Huckriede
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060664 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection can lead to inflammation of the central nervous system. The disease can be effectively prevented by whole inactivated virus vaccines. Here, we investigated the innate immune profile induced in vitro by the antigen component of the vaccines, inactivated [...] Read more.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection can lead to inflammation of the central nervous system. The disease can be effectively prevented by whole inactivated virus vaccines. Here, we investigated the innate immune profile induced in vitro by the antigen component of the vaccines, inactivated TBEV (I-TBEV), to gain insights into the mechanism of action of the TBE vaccine as compared to the live virus. To this end, we exposed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to inactivated and live TBEV and assessed cellular responses by RNA sequencing. Both inactivated and live TBEV significantly induced an interferon-dominated gene signature and an increased RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) expression. Using pathway-specific inhibitors, we assessed the involvement of pattern recognition receptors in the sensing of inactivated or live TBEV. Only RLR pathway inhibition significantly suppressed the downstream cascade induced by I-TBEV, while responses to the replicating virus were impacted by the inhibition of RIG-I-like, as well as Toll-like, receptors. Our results show that inactivated and live TBEV predominantly engaged an interferon response in our in vitro PBMC platform, and indicate RLRs as the main pattern recognition receptors involved in I-TBEV sensing. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 724 KiB  
Review
The Clinical Relevance of the Microbiome in Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Systematic Review
by Dillon Mintoff, Isabella Borg and Nikolai Paul Pace
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101076 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit. The name of the condition is a testament to the presumed relationship between the disease and the microbiome. The pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa is, however, complex and believed to be the product of [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit. The name of the condition is a testament to the presumed relationship between the disease and the microbiome. The pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa is, however, complex and believed to be the product of a multifactorial interplay between the interfollicular epithelium, pilosebaceous unit, microbiome, as well as genetic and environmental factors. In this review we assimilate the existing literature regarding the role played by the human microbiome in HS in various contexts of the disease, including the pathophysiologic, therapeutic, and potentially, diagnostic as well prognostic. In conclusion, the role played by the microbiome in HS is extensive and relevant and can have bench-to-bedside applications. Full article
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