Infectious Diseases and Immune Intervention

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 5724

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Respiratory Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
Interests: immune responses; infectious diseases; vaccine, immunology; cellular immunology; immunopathology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to create a collection of primary research and opinion articles addressing the topic of immune intervention in infectious disease. We know that biologics used to treat autoimmune diseases can result in infectious disease, but what does this teach us about the immune control of infectious diseases? Additionally, we have been focusing on how the local immune response controls infection, but how does it impact overall health, and how can non-immune interventions allow the immune response to function optimally?

I am looking for new insights, repurposing of old medicines, speculation as to what we can do to overcome chronic disease in areas where resources may be limiting. We should also be thinking about what the massive COVID-19 data sets on vaccination, immune intervention, and long-term consequences of acute infection tell us, not only about COVID-19, but also about those infectious diseases we have been living with for much longer.

Can we make a difference in the world of infectious disease by looking at the immune response to pathogens in a new light?

Join me for this opportunity to present your new data and your key insights.

Yours in the spirit of novelty,

Prof. Dr. Andrea M. Cooper
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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17 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Characterization of the Mumps-Specific HLA-A2 Restricted T-Cell Response after Mumps Virus Infection
by Josien Lanfermeijer, Marieke M. Nühn, Maarten E. Emmelot, Martien C. M. Poelen, Cécile A. C. M. van Els, José A. M. Borghans, Debbie van Baarle, Patricia Kaaijk and Jelle de Wit
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121431 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Waning of the mumps virus (MuV)-specific humoral response after vaccination has been suggested as a cause for recent mumps outbreaks in vaccinated young adults, although it cannot explain all cases. Moreover, CD8+ T cells may play an important role in the response [...] Read more.
Waning of the mumps virus (MuV)-specific humoral response after vaccination has been suggested as a cause for recent mumps outbreaks in vaccinated young adults, although it cannot explain all cases. Moreover, CD8+ T cells may play an important role in the response against MuV; however, little is known about the characteristics and dynamics of the MuV-specific CD8+ T-cell response after MuV infection. Here, we had the opportunity to follow the CD8+ T-cell response to three recently identified HLA-A2*02:01-restricted MuV-specific epitopes from 1.5 to 36 months post-MuV infection in five previously vaccinated and three unvaccinated individuals. The infection-induced CD8+ T-cell response was dominated by T cells specific for the ALDQTDIRV and LLDSSTTRV epitopes, while the response to the GLMEGQIVSV epitope was subdominant. MuV-specific CD8+ T-cell frequencies in the blood declined between 1.5 and 9 months after infection. This decline was not explained by changes in the expression of inhibitory receptors or homing markers. Despite the ongoing changes in the frequencies and phenotype of MuV-specific CD8+ T cells, TCRβ analyses revealed a stable MuV-specific T-cell repertoire over time. These insights in the maintenance of the cellular response against mumps may provide hallmarks for optimizing vaccination strategies towards a long-term cellular memory response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Immune Intervention)
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5 pages, 1035 KiB  
Brief Report
Benefits of Using Dapsone in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19
by Badar A. Kanwar, Asif Khattak, Jenny Balentine, Jong Hoon Lee and Richard E. Kast
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020195 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3222
Abstract
Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, refractory and relentless hypoxia as a consequence of exuberant lung inflammation and parenchymal damage remains the main cause of death. We have earlier reported results of the addition of dapsone in this population to the standard [...] Read more.
Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, refractory and relentless hypoxia as a consequence of exuberant lung inflammation and parenchymal damage remains the main cause of death. We have earlier reported results of the addition of dapsone in this population to the standard of care. We now report a further chart review of discharge outcomes among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The 2 × 2 table analysis showed a lower risk of death or discharge to LTAC (Long term acute care) (RR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.84) and a higher chance of discharge home (RR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.9) among patients receiving dapsone compared to those receiving the usual standard of care. A larger, blinded randomized trial should be carried out urgently to determine if dapsone indeed improves outcomes in COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Immune Intervention)
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