Special Issue "Long-Term Effects of Venom in Bites and Stings"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Venoms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Anjana Silva
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura, 50008, Sri Lanka
2. Monash Venom Group, Monash University, Melbourne 3800, Australia
Interests: clinical and experimental toxinology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Globally, venomous bites and stings are significant public health issues. In general, the most affected are the rural farming communities in tropics who mostly have poor access to healthcare. As a result of the socioeconomic factors of the vulnerable communities, which limit reporting, accurate estimates of the global burden of venomous bites and stings remain far from reality. Even presently, many victims of bites and stings seek treatment from healers and traditional practitioners, and hence never appear in the national health statistics of their countries.

Based on what is available so far, the knowledge-base on the effects of bites and stings on human health has largely been polarized towards the acute effects of envenoming. Even those who seek treatment from hospitals following a bite or a sting are rarely followed-up once they received treatment and discharged from the hospital. Therefore, the burden of the long-term effects of bites and stings is poorly understood. The available few studies on the long-term effects of snakebites do suggest diverse long-term effects, such as severe local necrosis, resulting amputations, blindness, chronic kidney disease, psychological effects, and endocrine anomalies, which continue to compromise the quality of life of the survivor. Long-term effects could show a significant variation of the nature and the severity, in different parts of the world, considering the diversity of the animals involved in the bites and stings.

This Special Issue of Toxins presents the most recent data on the long-term effects of bites and stings, covering a wide range of topics, including epidemiology, clinical effects, and mechanistic insights on the clinical effects.

Dr. Anjana Silva
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • long-term effects
  • snakebite
  • envenoming
  • disability
  • amputation
  • necrosis
  • blindness

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Circumstances and Consequences of Snakebite Envenomings: A Qualitative Study in South-Eastern Costa Rica
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010045 (registering DOI) - 11 Jan 2020
A qualitative study was carried out in south-eastern Costa Rica on the circumstances and consequences of snakebite envenomings. This region has the highest incidence of snakebites and the lowest per capita and per family income in the country. There is a high degree [...] Read more.
A qualitative study was carried out in south-eastern Costa Rica on the circumstances and consequences of snakebite envenomings. This region has the highest incidence of snakebites and the lowest per capita and per family income in the country. There is a high degree of destitution and an unstable labor situation in the region. This study was based on semistructured interviews with 15 people who had suffered snakebite envenomings. This sample size was established on the basis of data saturation. Bites occurred mostly while doing agricultural work, either as salaried workers, as occasional workers, or working on their own. Although all people were attended in health centers of the public health system, and received antivenom free of charge, the majority of them did not receive compensation or rehabilitation upon discharge from the health facilities as a result of not being regular salaried workers. People described many difficulties as a consequence of these envenomings, such as permanent physical sequelae, including two amputations, psychological consequences, economic hardships, and difficulties for reinsertion into agricultural work. In spite of the significant advances that Costa Rica has made for reducing the impact of these envenomings, results reveal issues that require urgent attention by government and civil society organizations, to compensate for the physical, psychological, social, and economic consequences of these envenomings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Effects of Venom in Bites and Stings)
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