Foodborne Toxins: Advanced Detection and Toxicity

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 5507

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA‐ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA
Interests: foodborne toxins; antifungal agents; mechanisms of interactions between bacterial toxins and host cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA‐ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA
Interests: molecular tools and technologies for rapid; accurate and sensitive detection and quantification of zoonotic pathogens and toxins in food; mechanisms of interactions between bacterial toxins and host cells; binding between antigen and antibody or receptors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA‐ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA
Interests: antifungal intervention; drug repurposing; drug resistance; redox adjuvants; resistance management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA
Interests: control of microbial growth; drug discovery; treatment for infectious diseases; animal pathogens
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA‐ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA
Interests: foodborne toxins; antifungal agents; mechanisms of interactions between bacterial toxins and host cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foodborne diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. It is a global concern that affects public health and places undue economic burdens on consumers as well as significant economic losses for farmers, manufacturers, and retailers. In many cases, the production of toxins and subsequent intoxication of the host after oral ingestion of contaminated foods leads to the development of disease. However, the pathogeneses of toxins produced by microbes, plants or fungi are not well understood and methods for toxin control and prevention are lacking or can be improved. Recent foodborne outbreaks have also provided new insights into newly described bacterial toxins, which are not typically regarded as foodborne pathogens. Therefore, to ensure a safe food supply, advances in diagnostic detection technologies that are rapid, sensitive, and portable are critical. New methods to control production, and inactivate foodborne toxins from known and unknown pathogens in a variety of complex matrices, must be developed to aid food processors and regulatory agencies to adequately monitor the safety of our food. In addition, the development of new countermeasures, such as drugs or vaccines against such toxins, would help combat foodborne intoxications. This Special Issue of “Foodborne toxins: Advanced detection and future prevention” will focus on the pathogenesis of foodborne toxins, advances in detection approaches, new methods of toxin control or therapeutic interventions and new vaccines or countermeasures against of the foodborne toxins. Review and research papers describing established and novel concepts are welcome.

Dr. Christina C. Tam
Dr. Xiaohua He
Dr. Jong Heon Kim
Dr. Kirkwood Land
Dr. Mikhail Shilman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • foodborne toxins
  • foodborne pathogens
  • bacterial toxins
  • foodborne intoxications

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 2602 KiB  
Article
Intraspecific Diversity and Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from an Emetic Illness
by Jintana Pheepakpraw, Thida Kaewkod, Maytiya Konkit, Sasiprapa Krongdang, Kanyaluck Jantakee, Rueankaew Praphruet, Sakunnee Bovonsombut, Aussara Panya, Yingmanee Tragoolpua, Niall A. Logan and Thararat Chitov
Toxins 2023, 15(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15020089 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
This study describes an emetic food-borne intoxication associated with a Bacillus cereus group species and the characterization of the bacterial isolates from the incident in aspects of molecular tying, genetic factors, cytotoxicity, and pathogenic mechanisms relating to emetic illness. Through the polyphasic identification [...] Read more.
This study describes an emetic food-borne intoxication associated with a Bacillus cereus group species and the characterization of the bacterial isolates from the incident in aspects of molecular tying, genetic factors, cytotoxicity, and pathogenic mechanisms relating to emetic illness. Through the polyphasic identification approach, all seven isolates obtained from food and clinical samples were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. According to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, intraspecific diversity was found within the B. thuringiensis isolates. Four allelic profiles were found, including two previously known STs (ST8 and ST15) and two new STs (ST2804 and ST2805). All isolates harbored gene fragments located in the cereulide synthetase (ces) gene cluster. The heat-treated culture supernatants of three emetic B. thuringiensis isolates, FC2, FC7, and FC8, caused vacuolation and exhibited toxicity to Caco-2 cells, with CC50 values of 56.57, 72.17, and 79.94 µg/mL, respectively. The flow cytometry with the Annexin V/PI assay revealed both apoptosis and necrosis mechanisms, but necrosis was the prominent mechanism that caused Caco-2 cell destruction by FC2, the most toxic isolate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Toxins: Advanced Detection and Toxicity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7400 KiB  
Article
Lysine Inhibits Hemolytic Activity of Staphylococcus aureus and Its Application in Food Model Contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus
by Yangli Wan, Xiaowen Wang, Tianyi Bai, Xuting Zheng, Liu Yang, Qianhong Li and Xin Wang
Toxins 2022, 14(12), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14120867 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is one of the important exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and can be used as a target to reduce the virulence of S. aureus. This study explored the inhibitory effect of Lysine (Lys) on Hla and its application [...] Read more.
Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is one of the important exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and can be used as a target to reduce the virulence of S. aureus. This study explored the inhibitory effect of Lysine (Lys) on Hla and its application in food safety. Lys significantly inhibited the expression of Hla at sub-inhibitory concentrations and directly interacted with Hla to interfere with its oligomerization and thus significantly inhibited its hemolytic activity. Notably, Lys attenuated S. aureus damage to mouse small intestine and Caco-2 cells and delayed mouse mortality. In the food model, Lys inhibited the expression of Hla of S. aureus and had no significant effect on the sensory score. Moreover, Lys had no obvious damage effect on the main organs of mice, which indicated that Lys has good biocompatibility and has the potential to be used in the food industry as an anti-S. aureus preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Toxins: Advanced Detection and Toxicity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1355 KiB  
Article
Effect of an Eco-Friendly Cuminaldehyde Guanylhydrazone Disinfectant on Shiga Toxin Production and Global Transcription of Escherichia coli
by Yan Wang, William M. Hart-Cooper, Reuven Rasooly, Michelle Qiu Carter, William J. Orts, Yongqiang Gu and Xiaohua He
Toxins 2022, 14(11), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14110752 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Antimicrobials have been important medicines used to treat various infections. However, some antibiotics increase the expression of Shiga toxin (Stx). Also, the pervasive use of persistent antibiotics has led to ecotoxicity and antibiotic resistance. In this study, a newly developed broad-spectrum and reversible [...] Read more.
Antimicrobials have been important medicines used to treat various infections. However, some antibiotics increase the expression of Shiga toxin (Stx). Also, the pervasive use of persistent antibiotics has led to ecotoxicity and antibiotic resistance. In this study, a newly developed broad-spectrum and reversible antibiotic (guanylhydrazone disinfectant) was evaluated for its antibiotic activity and effects on Stx production and global transcription of bacteria. No Stx induction was observed in 25 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates treated with a sublethal concentration of the guanylhydrazone. A differential gene expression study comparing two guanylhydrazone-treated to non-treated E. coli strains indicated that the expression of a group of stress-responsive genes were enhanced. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that guanylhydrazone treatment significantly downregulated the pathways of ribosome and flagellar assembly in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains and differentially regulated some pathways essential for bacteria to maintain cell shape and gain survival advantage in two strains. In addition, upregulation of antibiotic resistant genes related to the multidrug efflux system and virulence genes coding for colibactin, colicin, and adhesin was observed in strains treated with the disinfectant. The knowledge obtained in this study contributes to our understanding of the mode of this disinfectant action and facilitates our effort to better use disinfectants for STEC treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Toxins: Advanced Detection and Toxicity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop