Special Issue "Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. András Szabó
Website
Guest Editor
Kaposvár University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, “Mycotoxins in the Food Chain” Research Group , Kaposvár, Hungary

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Feed crops worldwide are very frequently infected with mycotoxin-producing molds. Though we know some basic characteristic symptoms of these mycotoxins already, we are still far from a deep understanding—especially concerning cellular events and their modes of action.

This Special Issue of Toxins is intended to focus on the cellular-level effects of feedborne mycotoxins, mostly in monogastric animals (in vivo) and their cells (in vitro). Though it is known that fusarial toxins like DON and some other trichothecenes provoke gastrointestinal symptoms and are immune suppressive, whereas zearalenone creates estrogen-like disturbances and fumonisins manifest different cell-function disorders, we also only partly understand their multitoxic, interaction-driven effects. As a further important addition, over the basic effects, some secondary (or primary?) ones may also be present—the most widely investigated being oxidative stress.

For this Special Issue we look forward to receiving researchers’ contributions in the form of original research, case studies, or review papers, giving new aspects and results to the understanding of the single or combined effects of various mycotoxins in feed, and their implications for disease development in farm and laboratory animals under both experimental, and preferably under realistic conditions.

Prof. Dr. András Szabó
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • feedborne mycotoxins and nutrition
  • toxic effects and animal health
  • in vivo and in vitro studies
  • cellular and molecular mechanisms
  • multitoxic effects and mycotoxin interactions
  • lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Zearalenone-Induced Interaction between PXR and Sp1 Increases Binding of Sp1 to a Promoter Site of the eNOS, Decreasing Its Transcription and NO Production in BAECs
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060421 - 25 Jun 2020
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin that has various toxicological impacts on mammalian health. Here, we found that ZEN significantly affected the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A promoter [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin that has various toxicological impacts on mammalian health. Here, we found that ZEN significantly affected the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A promoter analysis using 5′-serially deleted human eNOS promoter revealed that the proximal region (−135 to +22) was responsible for ZEN-mediated reduction of the human eNOS promoter activity. This effect was reversed by mutation of two specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding elements in the human eNOS promoter. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ZEN increased Sp1 binding to the bovine eNOS promoter region (−113 to −12), which is homologous to −135 to +22 of the human eNOS promoter region. We also found that ZEN promoted the binding of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) to Sp1 of the bovine eNOS, consequently decreasing eNOS expression. This reduction of eNOS could have contributed to the decreased acetylcholine-induced vessel relaxation upon ZEN treatment in our ex vivo study using mouse aortas. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ZEN decreases eNOS expression by enhancing the binding of PXR-Sp1 to the eNOS promoter, thereby decreasing NO production and potentially causing vessel dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Orally Administered Fumonisins Affect Porcine Red Cell Membrane Sodium Pump Activity and Lipid Profile without Apparent Oxidative Damage
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050318 - 12 May 2020
Abstract
Weaned piglets (n = 3 × 6) were fed 0, 15 and 30 mg/kg diet fumonisin (FB1, FB2 and FB3, i.e., FBs, a sphinganine analogue mycotoxin), from the age of 35 days for 21 days, to assess [...] Read more.
Weaned piglets (n = 3 × 6) were fed 0, 15 and 30 mg/kg diet fumonisin (FB1, FB2 and FB3, i.e., FBs, a sphinganine analogue mycotoxin), from the age of 35 days for 21 days, to assess mycotoxin induced, dose-dependent changes in the red cells’ membrane. Ouabain sensitive Na+/K+ ATPase activity was determined from lysed red cell membranes, membrane fatty acid (FA) profile was analysed, as well as antioxidant and lipid peroxidation endpoints. Final body weight was higher in the 30 mg/kg group (vs. control), even besides identical cumulative feed intake. After 3 weeks, there was a difference between control and the 30 mg/kg group in red cell membrane sodium pump activity; this change was dose-dependent (sig.: 0.036; R2 = 0.58). Membrane FA profile was strongly saturated with non-systematic inter-group differences; pooled data provided negative correlation with sodium pump activity (all individual membrane n6 FAs). Intracellular antioxidants (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) and lipid peroxidation indicators (conj. dienes, trienes and malondialdehyde) were non-responsive. We suppose a ceramide synthesis inhibitor (FB1) effect exerted onto the cell membrane, proven to be toxin dose-dependent and increasing sodium pump activity, with only indirect FA compositional correlations and lack of lipid peroxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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