Advances towards Novel Rapid and Eco-Friendly Methods for the Analysis of Mycotoxins in Food

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 4465

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Division of Organic Trace Analysis and Food Analysis, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Reference Materials, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany
Interests: organic contaminants in the food chain with focus on mycotoxins; investigation of transformation products of contaminants of emerging concern; development of analytical methods for screening and standardization; certification of reference materials for food and consumer products
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Guest Editor
Division of Organic Trace Analysis and Food Analysis, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Reference Materials, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany
Interests: novel and on-site analytical methods; organic trace and food analysis; volatile organic compounds as marker analytes; non-target chromatography and mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Mycotoxins, a diverse group of fungal toxins, pose a serious threat to human and animal health and cause major economic impacts worldwide. These secondary metabolites can occur throughout the food chain, including production, processing, transport and storage. Increased temperatures and humidity due to climate change may exacerbate the problem. As a result of toxicological studies in recent years, more and more national and international regulations are being issued to set maximum levels for certain mycotoxins.

For wide acceptance and implementation of these regulations, reliable, economical and practical detection methods are essential. Although several analytical methods for mycotoxins are already known, future challenges can be identified. One of these challenges are rapid methods, preferably at the site of contamination, to reduce further processing efforts. Another trend are ecologically friendly methods, e.g. by miniaturization or by avoiding harmful substances. To contribute to these processes, this special issue will focus on advances in novel rapid and environmentally friendly methods for the analysis of mycotoxins in food.

Dr. Matthias Koch
Dr. Ruben Epping
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Food safety
  • Analytical methods
  • Novel
  • Rapid
  • Eco-friendly

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD
by Matthias Koch, Tatjana Mauch and Juliane Riedel
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080549 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Rapid, cost-efficient, and eco-friendly methods are desired today for routine analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible vegetable oils. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is commonly used to reliably control the specified ZEN maximum levels, which requires efficient sample clean-up [...] Read more.
Rapid, cost-efficient, and eco-friendly methods are desired today for routine analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible vegetable oils. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is commonly used to reliably control the specified ZEN maximum levels, which requires efficient sample clean-up to avoid matrix interferences. Therefore, a highly selective extraction and clean-up method based on reversible covalent hydrazine chemistry (RCHC) using hydrazine-functionalized silica was developed. This efficient solid-phase extraction (SPE) involves reversible hydrazone formation of ZEN with the hydrazine moiety covalently bound to a solid phase. Optimal conditions were achieved with 1 mL SPE cartridges filled with 400 mg of hydrazine-functionalized silica. The developed RCHC-SPE method was validated in an interlaboratory comparison study (ILC) with twelve participants analyzing six edible vegetable oils with a focus on maize oils. The derived method parameters (ZEN recovery 83%, repeatability 7.0%, and reproducibility 18%) meet the performance criteria of Commission Regulation (EC) No 401/2006. The developed RCHC-SPE-based HPLC-FLD method allows the reliable quantification of ZEN in the range of 47–494 µg/kg for different types of edible vegetable oils, also for matrix-reach native oils. Due to the high efficiency, the significantly reduced matrix load helps to extend the lifetime of analytical equipment. Furthermore, the re-useability of the RCHC-SPE cartridges contributes to an eco-friendly approach and reduced analysis costs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on ZEN quantification in edible vegetable oils based on manual RCHC-SPE cartridges. Due to its high performance, the developed RCHC-SPE method is a promising alternative to the current European standard method EN 16924:2017 (HPLC-FLD part). Full article
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14 pages, 2356 KiB  
Article
Measurement of Fumonisins in Maize Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer
by Chris M. Maragos, Kristin Barnett, Luke Morgan, Martha M. Vaughan and Kristal K. Sieve
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080523 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that routinely contaminate maize. Their presence is monitored at multiple stages from harvest to final product. Immunoassays are routinely used to screen commodities in the field while laboratory-based methods, such as mass spectrometry (MS), are used for [...] Read more.
Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that routinely contaminate maize. Their presence is monitored at multiple stages from harvest to final product. Immunoassays are routinely used to screen commodities in the field while laboratory-based methods, such as mass spectrometry (MS), are used for confirmation. The use of a portable mass spectrometer unlocks the potential to conduct confirmatory analyses outside of traditional laboratories. Herein, a portable mass spectrometer was used to measure fumonisins in maize. Samples were extracted with aqueous methanol, cleaned up on an immunoaffinity column, and tested with the portable MS. The limits of detection were 0.15, 0.19, and 0.28 mg/kg maize for fumonisins B1 (FB1), FB2/FB3, and total fumonisins, respectively. The corresponding limits of quantitation in maize were 0.33, 0.59, and 0.74 mg/kg. Recoveries ranged from 93.6% to 108.6%. However, RSDs ranged from 12.0 to 29.8%. The method was applied to the detection of fumonisins in 64 samples of maize collected as part of the Illinois Department of Agriculture’s monitoring program. Good correlations were observed between the portable MS and a laboratory-based LC-MS method (r2 from 0.9132 to 0.9481). Results suggest the portable MS can be applied to the measurement of fumonisins in maize at levels relevant to international regulations. Full article
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