Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Total-Forms of Cyanotoxins Microcystins in Biological Matrices: A Methodological Review
Previous Article in Journal
Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO
Previous Article in Special Issue
Measurement of Fumonisins in Maize Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer
 
 
Article

Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD

Division of Organic Trace and Food Analysis, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Str. 11, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080549
Received: 8 July 2022 / Revised: 9 August 2022 / Accepted: 10 August 2022 / Published: 11 August 2022
Rapid, cost-efficient, and eco-friendly methods are desired today for routine analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible vegetable oils. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is commonly used to reliably control the specified ZEN maximum levels, which requires efficient sample clean-up to avoid matrix interferences. Therefore, a highly selective extraction and clean-up method based on reversible covalent hydrazine chemistry (RCHC) using hydrazine-functionalized silica was developed. This efficient solid-phase extraction (SPE) involves reversible hydrazone formation of ZEN with the hydrazine moiety covalently bound to a solid phase. Optimal conditions were achieved with 1 mL SPE cartridges filled with 400 mg of hydrazine-functionalized silica. The developed RCHC-SPE method was validated in an interlaboratory comparison study (ILC) with twelve participants analyzing six edible vegetable oils with a focus on maize oils. The derived method parameters (ZEN recovery 83%, repeatability 7.0%, and reproducibility 18%) meet the performance criteria of Commission Regulation (EC) No 401/2006. The developed RCHC-SPE-based HPLC-FLD method allows the reliable quantification of ZEN in the range of 47–494 µg/kg for different types of edible vegetable oils, also for matrix-reach native oils. Due to the high efficiency, the significantly reduced matrix load helps to extend the lifetime of analytical equipment. Furthermore, the re-useability of the RCHC-SPE cartridges contributes to an eco-friendly approach and reduced analysis costs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on ZEN quantification in edible vegetable oils based on manual RCHC-SPE cartridges. Due to its high performance, the developed RCHC-SPE method is a promising alternative to the current European standard method EN 16924:2017 (HPLC-FLD part). View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; food; reversible covalent hydrazine chemistry (RCHC); quantitative determination mycotoxin; food; reversible covalent hydrazine chemistry (RCHC); quantitative determination
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Koch, M.; Mauch, T.; Riedel, J. Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD. Toxins 2022, 14, 549. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080549

AMA Style

Koch M, Mauch T, Riedel J. Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD. Toxins. 2022; 14(8):549. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080549

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koch, Matthias, Tatjana Mauch, and Juliane Riedel. 2022. "Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD" Toxins 14, no. 8: 549. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080549

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop