Food Poisoning or Foodborne Intoxications Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 14331

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Poison Control Centre and National Toxicology Information Centre,Toxicology Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, IRCCS Maugeri Hospital and University of Pavia, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 10 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: food poisoning; intoxication; health safety; antidote; clinical toxicology; foodborne

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foodborne toxins or pathogens may cause illnesses or intoxications, some of which are severe and lethal. Globalization and large-scale food preparations may pose a potential health risk, therefore a rapid identification of intoxication sources is essential for the prevention of food poisoning. Food poisoning can develop in multiple ways, as foodborne infections (caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses), botulism, intoxication by anticholinergic alkaloids present in vegetables and plants, mushrooms, marine food (by ciguatoxins, tetrodotoxin, and other algal toxins), scombroid syndrome, intoxication by illegal food additives, food contaminants (e.g., arsenic, mercury), or biological agents potentially used as terrorist weapons.

This Special Issue will focus on various and disparate aspects of food poisoning to provide a general and unique vision of a frequent and potentially serious problem.

Prof. Dr. Davide Lonati
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Food poisoning
  • Intoxication
  • Health safety
  • Antidote
  • Clinical toxicology
  • Foodborne

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5203 KiB  
Article
Risk of Poisoning from Garden Plants: Misidentification between Laurel and Cherry Laurel
by Paola Malaspina, Federica Betuzzi, Mariarosaria Ingegneri, Antonella Smeriglio, Laura Cornara and Domenico Trombetta
Toxins 2022, 14(11), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14110726 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3018
Abstract
The misidentification between edible and poisonous plants is an increasing problem because of the new trend to collect wild plants, especially by amateur collectors who do not have the botanical skills to distinguish between edible and toxic species. Moreover, morphologically similar species are [...] Read more.
The misidentification between edible and poisonous plants is an increasing problem because of the new trend to collect wild plants, especially by amateur collectors who do not have the botanical skills to distinguish between edible and toxic species. Moreover, morphologically similar species are sometimes responsible for accidental contamination or used in the intentional adulteration of products for human and animal consumption. Laurus nobilis L. (laurel) and Prunus laurocerasus L. (cherry laurel) are typical ornamental shrubs of the Mediterranean region. Laurel is considered a non-toxic plant, widely used as flavorings. Conversely, cherry laurel leaves, morphologically similar to those of laurel, contain toxic cyanogenic glycosides. Considering this, the aim of this study was to carry out an in-depth evaluation of laurel and cherry laurel leaves by using light and scanning electron microscopy coupled with three step phytochemical analyses (qualitative and quantitative colorimetric assays and liquid chromatography). This allowed to highlight the distinguishing features of plant species investigated features such as the venation pattern, presence/absence of nectaries, calcium oxalate crystals, secretory idioblasts, and cyanogenic glycosides. Concluding, this multidisciplinary approach can be useful for the identification of plants but also fragments or pruning residues containing cyanogenic glycosides, in quality control tests, intoxications, and criminal cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Poisoning or Foodborne Intoxications Diagnosis and Treatment)
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11 pages, 772 KiB  
Article
Acute Liver Failure after Ingestion of Fried Rice Balls: A Case Series of Bacillus cereus Food Poisonings
by Nikolaus Schreiber, Gerald Hackl, Alexander C. Reisinger, Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Kathrin Eller, Claudia Schlagenhaufen, Ariane Pietzka, Christoph Czerwenka, Timo D. Stark, Markus Kranzler, Peter Fickert, Philipp Eller and Monika Ehling-Schulz
Toxins 2022, 14(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14010012 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4812
Abstract
Bacillus cereus foodborne intoxications and toxicoinfections are on a rise. Usually, symptoms are self-limiting but occasionally hospitalization is necessary. Severe intoxications with the emetic Bacillus cereus toxin cereulide, which is notably resistant heat and acid during cooking, can cause acute liver failure and [...] Read more.
Bacillus cereus foodborne intoxications and toxicoinfections are on a rise. Usually, symptoms are self-limiting but occasionally hospitalization is necessary. Severe intoxications with the emetic Bacillus cereus toxin cereulide, which is notably resistant heat and acid during cooking, can cause acute liver failure and encephalopathy. We here present a case series of food poisonings in five immunocompetent adults after ingestion of fried rice balls, which were massively contaminated with Bacillus cereus. The patients developed a broad clinical spectrum, ranging from emesis and diarrhoea to life-threatening acute liver failure and acute tubular necrosis of the kidney in the index patient. In the left-over rice ball, we detected 8 × 106Bacillus cereus colony-forming units/g foodstuff, and cereulide in a concentration of 37 μg/g foodstuff, which is one of the highest cereulide toxin contaminations reported so far from foodborne outbreaks. This report emphasizes the potential biological hazard of contaminated rice meals that are not freshly prepared. It exemplifies the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in cases of Bacillus cereus associated food poisonings to rapidly establish the diagnosis, to closely monitor critically ill patients, and to provide supportive measures for acute liver failure and—whenever necessary—urgent liver transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Poisoning or Foodborne Intoxications Diagnosis and Treatment)
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17 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Widely Consumed Nigerian Food Crops Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)
by Kingsley O. Omeje, Benjamin O. Ezema, Finbarr Okonkwo, Nnenna C. Onyishi, Juliet Ozioko, Waheed A. Rasaq, Giacomo Sardo and Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala
Toxins 2021, 13(12), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13120870 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5309
Abstract
More still needs to be learned regards the relative contamination of heavy metals and pesticide residues, particularly those found in widely consumed Nigerian food crops like cereals, vegetables, and tubers. In this current study, the heavy metals and pesticide residues detectable in widely [...] Read more.
More still needs to be learned regards the relative contamination of heavy metals and pesticide residues, particularly those found in widely consumed Nigerian food crops like cereals, vegetables, and tubers. In this current study, the heavy metals and pesticide residues detectable in widely consumed Nigerian food crops were respectively quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and gas chromatography (GC). Specifically, the widely consumed Nigerian food crops included cereals (rice, millet, and maize), legume (soybean), tubers (yam and cassava), as well as leaf (fluted pumpkin, Amaranthus leaf, waterleaf, and scent leaf) and fruit vegetables (okro, cucumber, carrot, and watermelon). Results showed that the detected heavy metals included arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and nickel (Ni), whereas the pesticide residues included Aldrin, Carbofuran, g-chlordane, Chlorpyrifos, DichloroBiphenyl, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), Dichlorvos, Endosulfan, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Isopropylamine, Lindane, t-nonachlor, and Profenofos. Across the studied food crops, the concentrations of heavy metals and pesticides were varied, with different trends as they largely fell below the established maximum permissible limits, and with some exceptions. Our findings suggest there could be a somewhat gradual decline in the concentration of the heavy metals and pesticide residues of these studied food crops when compared to previously published reports specific to Nigeria. To help substantiate this observation and supplement existing information, further investigations are required into the concentration of these heavy metals and pesticide residues specific to these studied food crops at other parts of the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Poisoning or Foodborne Intoxications Diagnosis and Treatment)
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